PRIO Network

Migration


Coordinator: Marta Bivand Erdal

​​​The Migration research group addresses central theoretical aspects of migration and transnationalism, and the ways in which these phenomena are connected with peace and conflict. We seek to understand migration processes, the transnational ties created after migration, and their consequences for individuals and societies. The changes caused by migration are interlinked with other forms of social change in conflict, post-conflict, and peaceful contexts.​​

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​Migration and transnationalism interact with situations of peace and conflict in a number of ways. Many migration flows are caused by armed conflict, diasporas may play a role in the perpetuation or resolution of conflicts, and finding solutions for refugee populations may be fundamental to establishing a lasting peace.

Migration and migrants' transnational ties may also be significant for peace and development in societies of origin. In many communities across the world, links with migrants abroad is a main aspect of global connectedness. In societies of settlement, too, immigration and transnationalism affect the ways in which peaceful coexistence is possible, and how identity and citizenship are negotiated and experienced.

Furthermore, migration pressures and security concerns have contributed to the militarization of migration control and the erosion of humanitarian principles. Migration research is not only concerned with the people who move but also with those who experience hardship because they are prevented from moving. ​

Current Projects

Past Projects

Past Events

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) 'This is my home' Pakistani and Polish Migrants’ Return Considerations as Articulations About ‘Home’, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 361–384.
Brown, Richard; Jørgen Carling; Sonja Fransen & Melissa Siegel (2014) Measuring remittances through surveys: Methodological and conceptual issues for survey designers and data analysts, Demographic Research 31: 1243–1274.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2014) Return Migration Intentions in the Integration–Transnationalism Matrix, International Migration 52(6): 13–30.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Ezzati (2014) 'Where are you from' or 'when did you come'? Temporal dimensions in migrants' reflections about settlement and return, Ethnic and Racial Studies. DOI: 10.1080/01419870.2014.971041.
Carling, Jørgen (2014) Scripting Remittances: Making Sense of Money Transfers in Transnational Relationships, International Migration Review 48: 218–262.
Sagmo, Tove Heggli (2014) Return Visits as a Marker of Differentiation in the Social Field, Mobilities. DOI: 10.1080/17450101.2014.891860.
Demetriou, Olga (2014) 'Struck by the Turks': Reflections on Armenian Refugeehood in Cyprus, Patterns of Prejudice. DOI: 10.1080/0031322X.2014.905369.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Beyond the insider–outsider divide in migration research, Migration Studies 2(1): 36–54.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2013) Migrant Transnationalism and Multi-Layered Integration: Norwegian-Pakistani Migrants’ Own Reflections, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 983–999.
Carling, Jørgen & Kristian Hoelscher (2013) The Capacity and Desire to Remit: Comparing Local and Transnational Influences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 939–958.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Ceri Oeppen (2013) Migrant Balancing Acts: Understanding the Interactions Between Integration and Transnationalism, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 867–884.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Who is the money for? Remittances within and beyond the household in Pakistan, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 21(4): 437–458.
Hernández Carretero, María & Jørgen Carling (2012) Beyond "Kamikaze Migrants": Risk Taking in West African Boat Migration to Europe, Human Organization 71(4): 407–416.
Paasche, Erlend; & Fangen , Katrine (2012) Transnational Involvement: Reading Quantitative Studies in Light of Qualitative Data , International Journal of Population Research – 12.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) 'A Place to Stay in Pakistan': Why Migrants Build Houses in their Country of Origin, Population, Space and Place 18(5): 629–641.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2012) The Transnationalization of the Taliban, International Area Studies Review15(3): 203–229.
Carling, Jørgen;Schmalzbauer, Leah; & Menjívar, Cecilia (2012)Central Themes in the Study of Transnational Parenthood , Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 191–217.
Åkesson, Lisa; Jørgen Carling & Heike Drotbohm (2012) Mobility, Moralities and Motherhood: Navigating the Contingencies of Cape Verdean Lives, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 237–260.
Carling, Jørgen; & Hernández Carretero, María (2011) Protecting Europe and Protecting Migrants? Strategies for Managing Unauthorised Migration from Africa , British Journal of Politics and International Relations 13(1): 42–58.
Fadnes, Ellen; & Horst, Cindy (2009) Responses to Internal Displacement in Colombia: Guided by What Principles?, Refuge 26(1): 111–120.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kristian Stokke (2009) Contributing to Development? Transnational Activities among Tamils in Norway, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 18(3): 397–418.
Carling, Jørgen & Lisa Åkesson (2009) Mobility at the Heart of a Nation: Patterns and Meanings of Cape Verdean Migration, International Migration 47(3): 123–155.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Determinants of Migrant Remittances , Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24(3): 582–599.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Human Dynamics of Migrant Transnationalism , Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(8): 1452–1477.
Horst, Cindy (2008) The Transnational Political Engagements of Refugees: Remittance Sending Practices amongst Somalis in Norway, Conflict, Security and Development 8(3): 31–339.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Toward a Demography of Immigrant Communities and Their Transnational Potential , International Migration Review 42(2): 449–475.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Unauthorized migration from Africa to Spain , International Migration 45(4): 3–37.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Borders , International Migration Review 41(2): 316–343.
Horst, Cindy; & Horst, Cindy (2006)Refugee livelihoods: Continuity and Transformations , Refugee Survey Quarterly 25(2): 6–22.
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2005) On the Edge of the Chinese Diaspora: The Surge of Baihuo Business in an African City, Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 639–662.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders , Population, Space and Place 10(2): 113–132.
Carling, Jørgen (2003) Cartographies of Cape Verdean transnationalism , Global Networks 3(4): 533–539.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: Theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences , Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(1): 5–42.

PhD Thesis

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Transnational ties and belonging: Remittances from Pakistani migrants in Norway. PhD thesis, Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Transnationalism in the Context of Restrictive Immigration Policy. PhD thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, .

Monograph

Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2009) Social Networks and Migration in Wartime Afghanistan. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book Chapter

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) The social dynamics of remittance-receiving in Pakistan: Agency and opportunity among non-migrants in a transnational social field, in Migrant Remittances In South Asia Social, Economic and Political Implications. London: Palgrave Macmillan .
Ezzati, Rojan & Cindy Horst (2014) Norwegian collaboration with diasporas, in Laakso, Liisa; & Petri Hautaniemi, eds, Diasporas, Development and Peacemaking In the Horn of Africa. London/New York: Zed Books .
Friberg, Jon Horgen & Cindy Horst (2014) RDS and the Structure of Migrant Populations, in Tyldum, Guri; & Lisa Johnston, eds, Applying Respondent Driven Sampling to Migrant Populations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan .
Montealegre, Jane; Antje Röder & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Formative assessment, data collection and parallell monitoring for RDS fieldwork, in Tyldum, Guri; & Lisa Johnston, eds, Applying Respondent Driven Sampling to Migrant Populations. Lessons from the Field. London: Palgrave Pivot (62–83).
Horst, Cindy (2013) International Aid to Refugees in Kenya: The Neglected Role of the Somali Diaspora, in Kane, Abdoulaye; & Todd Leedy, eds, African Migrations: Patterns and Perspectives. Indiana: Indiana University Press (195–210).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Ezzati (2013) Når ute også er hjemme. Migrasjon og utenrikspolitikk, in Weltzien, Åsmund; & Odd Mølster, eds, Norge Og Det Nye Verdenskartet. Oslo: Cappelen Damm (58–79).
Paasche, Erlend; Are Knudsen & Arne Strand (2013) War and Migration, in The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Lischer, Sarah (2013) Refugee Militancy in Exile and Upon Return in Afghanistan and Rwanda, in Jeffrey T. Checkel, ed., Transnational Dynamics of Civil War. Cambridge University Press (89–119).
Horst, Cindy(2012) Chapter 2: Vulnerability and Protection: reducing risks and promoting security for forced migrants World Disaster Report 2012. : International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies(46–79).
Horst, Cindy(2012) The Livelihoods Approach Food Security Handbook. : Norwegian Refugee Council.
Naftalin, Mark(2012) Darfur The Oxford Companion to American Politics. : Oxford University Press(249–254).
Naftalin, Mark(2012) Darfur The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics. : Oxford University Press(273–278).
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Collecting, Analysing and Presenting Migration Histories, in Vargas-Silva, Carlos, ed., Handbook of Research Methods In Migration. Edward Elgar Publishing(137–162).
Carling, Jørgen(2011) The European Paradox of Unwanted Migration A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration. : Brussels University Press (VUB)(33–46).
Ezzati, Rojan(2011) 'Alle ser på oss som utlendinger uansett': Selvbilder og andre bilder av unge menn med muslimsk bakgrunn etter 11. september 2001, in Eriksen, Thomas Hylland, ed., Kulturell Kompleksitet I Det Nye Norge. : Unipub(57–67).
Harpviken, Kristian Berg(2010) The Return of the Refugee Warrior: Migration and Armed Resistance in Herat Beyond the Wild Tribes: Understanding Modern Afghanistan and Its Diaspora. : (121–137).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands, in Jørgen Carling, ed., Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora.. .
Carling, Jørgen & Luís Batalha (2008) Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora, in Jørgen Carling, ed., Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. .
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2008) Mixed Fates of a Popular Minority: Chinese migrants in Cape Verde, in Chris Alden, ed., China Returns to Africa. a Rising Power and a Continent Embrace. (319–337).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Interrogating Remittances: Core Questions for Deeper Insight and Better Policies, in Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. (43–64).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) 'Diaspora', 'Immigration', 'Emigration', 'Population', and 'Remittances', in Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde. .
Horst, Cindy(2007) The Somali Community in Minneapolis: Expectations and Realities From Mogadishu to Dixon: the Somali Diaspora In a Global Context. : .
Horst, Cindy(2007) The Role of Remittances in the Transnational Livelihood Strategies of Somalis Global Migration and Development. : .
Horst, Cindy(2007) Connected Lives: Somalis in Minneapolis Dealing with Family Responsibilities and Migration Dreams of Relatives Somalia: Diaspora and State Reconstitution In the Horn of Africa. : (89–101).
Carling, Jørgen(2005) Incorporating Insight from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances Migration, Remittances and Development. : (289–296).

Edited Volume

Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, (2008) Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam.
Carling, Jørgen (ed.) (2002) Nordic demography: Trends and differentials. Oslo. Scandinavian Population Studies.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) Transnationalism in a Comparative Perspective: An Introduction, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 255–260.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) The Merits and Limitations of Spain's High-Tech Border Control , Migration Information Source .
Carling, Jørgen; & Haugen, Heidi Østbø (2005) Sie wagen und gewinnen. Chinesische Händler in Afrika. [They Dare and Win. Chinese Traders in Africa.] , Der Überblick: Zeitschrift Für Ökumenische Begegnung Und Internationale Zusammenarbeit 41(4): 19–23.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Trafficking in Women from Nigeria to Europe , Migration Information Source .

Popular Article

Paasche, Erlend (2014) Nationalism Under Pressure: Islamic State, Iraq and Kurdistan, ISN Security Watch.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2014) Avleggs statsborgerskapslov [Outdated citizenship legislation], Dagens Næringsliv.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Kan Irak fikses? [Can Iraq be fixed?], Dagsavisen.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Vaklende løsrivelse [Faltering seccession], Morgenbladet.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Nasjonalisme under press [Nationalism under pressure], Dagens Næringsliv.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Muslimsk dugnad for de fattige [Muslim charity for the poor], VG.
Talleraas, Cathrine & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Stillheten om retur til Etiopia [The silence about return to Ethiopia], Ytring.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) En langvarig utfordring [A Long-Term Challenge], NRK Ytring.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2013) Den usynlige bistanden, Klassekampen.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Ezzati, Rojan (2013) Norge og det nye verdenskartet [Norway and the new world map], Dagsavisen, 22 May.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2013) Mindre norsk med to pass [Less Norwegian with two passports], Ytring.
Horst, Cindy (2012) Finding protection from violent conflict and famine?, Sarvi. Horn of Africa Journal, .
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Tillit til staten [Confidence in the state], Dagbladet, .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Naftalin, Mark (2012) Conflating Spaces: Syrian Rebels and Refugees in South Turkey , ISN Security Watch , 18 September.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Naftalin, Mark (2012) Militarisering av flyktningene [Militarization amongst refugees] , Dagsavisen , 29 August.
Horst, Cindy (2012) En trygg havn? [A safe haven?], Dagbladet, .
Lischer, Sarah (2011) No Refuge for Somali Refugees, Huffington Post, 4 November.
Lischer, Sarah (2011) Why Western Aid Won't Save Somalia, Huffington Post, 9 August.
Ezzati, Rojan (2011) Fragmentering i terrorens tid [Fragmentation in the Time of Terror], Dagsavisen , 2 August.
Erdal, Marta Bivand;Horst, Cindy;Carling, Jørgen; & Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten , 8 November.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Ekskludert fra utvikling? [Excluded from Development?], Dagsavisen, 29 July.
Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Kravet om forklaring, Dagsavisen, 14 July.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Mohamed Husein Gaas & Cindy Horst (2008) Tvunget til lovbrudd [Forced to Break the Law], Dagbladet, 2 April.
Nome, Frida Austvoll; & Carling, Jørgen (2005) Hvem er menneskesmuglerne? [Who are the Human Smugglers?], Dagbladet, 1 February.

PRIO Report

Horst, Cindy; Rojan Ezzati; Matteo Guglielmo; Petra Mezzetti; Päivi Pirkkalainen; Valeria Saggiomo; Giulia Sinatti; & Andrea Warnecke (2010) Participation of Diasporas in Peacebuilding and Development. A Handbook for Practitioners and Policymakers, PRIO Report, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Migrant Remittances and Development Cooperation, PRIO Report, 1. Oslo: PRIO.

Master Thesis

Hernández Carretero, María (2008) Risk-taking in Unauthorised Migration. MA thesis, Centre for Peace Studies, University of Tromsø, .
Sandbæk, Miriam Latif (2007) “Everybody wants to go abroad.” An ethnographic analysis of migration motivations in Morocco. MA thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, .

Conference Paper

Paasche, Erlend (2014) Elites and emulators: the evolution of an Iraqi Kurdish - European migration system, presented at THEMIS conference: Theorizing migration systems, University of Oxford, 26.02.2014.
Carling, Jørgen; & Hernández Carretero, María 2008 Kamikaze Migrants? Understanding and Tackling High-risk Migration from Africa, presented at Narratives of Migration Management and Cooperation with Countries of Origin and Transit, , 18–19 September.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg 2008What is Special about Refugee Warriors?, presented at Global Migation and Transnational Politics: Towards a New Policy Agenda18 April.
Horst, Cindy 2007 A Monopoly on Assistance? International Aid to Refugee Camps and the Role of the Diaspora, presented at AEGIS Conference, , 11 July.
Carling, Jørgen 2004 Unauthorized Entry at Europe’s Southern Borders: Routes, Dynamics and Fatalities, presented at International Migration in Europe: New Trends, New Methods of Analysis, , 25–27 November .
Carling, Jørgen 2004 Policy options for increasing the benefits of remittances, 27 September—1 October.
Carling, Jørgen 2004 Mellom to hjemland [Between Two Homelands], presented at Utlendingsdirektoratets vårkonferanse 2004, , 19 April.

PRIO Policy Brief

Paasche, Erlend (2014) Iraqi Kurdistan: Partner Under Pressure, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Iraqi Kurdistan: Partner under pressure, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: Erlend Paasche.
(2014) Why Assisted Return Programmes Must Be Evaluated, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: Erlend Paasche.
Eide, Cathrine (2014) The Unintended Effects of Norway’s Readmission Agreement with Ethiopia, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Who wants to go to Europe? Results from a large-scale survey on migration aspirations, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Naftalin, Mark & Kristian Berg Harpviken (2012) Rebels and Refugees: Syrians in Southern Turkey, PRIO Policy Brief, 10. Oslo: PRIO.
Gaas, Mohamed Husein & Cindy Horst (2009) Diaspora Organizations from the Horn of Africa in Norway: Contributions to Peacebuilding?, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy (2008) Diaspora Engagements in Development Cooperation, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Carling, Jørgen; Elin Berstad Mortensen & Jennifer Wu (2011) A Systematic Bibliography on Return Migration, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Horst, Cindy; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Ezzati (2010) Immigration to Norway from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Morocco and Ukraine, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Engaging Diasporas in Development. A Review of Pilot Project Pakistan, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Carling, Jørgen (2007) European Strategies for Reducing 'Unwanted' Immigration, DIIS Brief, : .

Report - External Series

Carling, Jørgen; Papa Demba Fall; María Hernández Carretero; Mame Yassine Sarr; & Jennifer Wu (2013) Migration aspirations in Senegal: Who wants to leave and why does it matter?, European Policy Brief. Brussels: European Commission.
Horst, Cindy (2013) Somalis in Oslo, Somalis in European Cities. New York: Open Society Foundations.
Afeef, Karin Fathimath (2009) A Promised Land for Refugees? Asylum and Migration in Israel, EPAU Working Papers [New Issues in Refugee Research], 183. : .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2008) From 'Refugee Warriors' to 'Returnee Warriors: Militant Homecoming in Afghanistan and Beyond, Global Migration and Transnational Politics Working Paper , 5. Arlington, VA: Center For Global Studies, George Mason University.
Strand, Arne;Akbari, Arghawan ;Wimpelmann Chaudhary, Torunn;Harpviken, Kristian Berg;Sarwari, Akbar; & Suhrke, Astri (2008) Return in Dignity, Return to What? Review of Voluntary Return Programme to Afghanistan , CMI Report, 6. : CMI.
Carling, Jørgen (2006) Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe, IOM Migration Research Series, 23. : .
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Gender Dimensions of International Migration, Global Migration Perspectives, 35. : .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy Options for Increasing the Benefits of Remittances, COMPAS Working Paper, : .
Strand, Arne;Suhrke, Astri; & Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2004) Afghan Refugees in Iran: From Refugee Emergency to Migration Management, CMI Policy Brief, : CMI/PRIO.

Book Review

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Review of Alexander Betts, ed., Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement, in The Journal of Modern African Studies 52(2): 332–333.
Vargas-Silva, Carlos (2013) Review of Review of Marta Bivand Erdal, ed., Handbook of Research Methods in Migration, in International Migration Review 47(2): 474–475.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2012) Review of Protecting Our Ports: Domestic and International Politics of Containerized Freight Security, in Journal of Peace Research 49(3): .
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Review of The Political Economy of Global Remittances: Gender, Governmentality and Neoliberalism, in Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30: 753–.
Carling, Jørgen(2002) Review of Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move 399–400.