1949-1992, 1995, 1997-98, 2000-2003, 2005-2011

  • Territory: Karen
  • Type: Internal
  • Side A: Myanmar
  • Side B: KNUP, Karen National Union (KNU), God's army, DKBA 5


Ardeth Maung Thawnghmung (2008) The Karen Revolution in Burma: Diverse Voices, Uncertain Ends. Washington, DC: East West Center Policy Studies 45.
Callahan, Mary P. (2007) Political Authority in Burma’s Ethnic Minority States: Devolution, Occupation, and Coexistence. Washington, DC: East-West Center Policy Studies 31.
Gibson, Richard M. & Wenchua Chen (2011) The Secret Army: Chiang Kai-Shek and the Drug Warlords of the Golden Triangle. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons.
Keenan, Paul (2012) By Force of Arms: Armed Ethnic Groups in Burma. Chiang Mai: Burma Center for Ethnic Studies.
Keenan, Paul (2012) The Karen National Union Negotiations 1949-2012. Chiang Mai: Burma Center for Ethnic Studies.
Lintner, Bertil (1999) Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency since 1948. Chiang Mai: Silkworm books.
Smith, Martin (1991) Burma: Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London: Zed Books.
South, Ashley (2003) Mon Nationalism and Civil War in Burma. London: Routledge.