This paper makes two empirical contributions to the literature, based on predictions generated by a lobby
groupmodel. First, we investigate how environmental lobby groups affect the determination of environmental
policy in rich and developing countries. Second, we explore the interaction between democratic participation
and political (electoral) competition. The empirical findings suggest that environmental lobby groups tend to
positively affect the stringency of environmental policy. Moreover, political competition tends to raise policy
stringency, in particular where citizens’ participation in the democratic process is widespread.
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