Environmentalism, Democracy, and Pollution Control

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Damania, Richard;Neumayer, Eric;Fredriksson, Per G.; & Gates, Scott (2005) Environmentalism, Democracy, and Pollution Control , Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 49(2): 343–365.

This paper makes two empirical contributions to the literature, based on predictions generated by a lobby groupmodel. First, we investigate how environmental lobby groups affect the determination of environmental policy in rich and developing countries. Second, we explore the interaction between democratic participation and political (electoral) competition. The empirical findings suggest that environmental lobby groups tend to positively affect the stringency of environmental policy. Moreover, political competition tends to raise policy stringency, in particular where citizens’ participation in the democratic process is widespread. r 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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Scott Gates

Scott Gates

Research Professor. Editor, International Area Studies Review