Introduction – Patterns of Armed Conflict Since 1945

Book Chapter

Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Erik Melander & Henrik Urdal (2016) Introduction – Patterns of Armed Conflict Since 1945, in Mason, T. David; & Sara McLaughlin Mitchell, eds, What Do We Know About Civil War?. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield (15–32).

​Replication files in Excel for Figures 1–4 and 6–11 can be downloaded above. The figures in the printed book are in black and white, so a document with all the figures in color is included in the replication file archive.

W​​e regret an error in Figure 6 in the published article. The label on the vertical axis reads 'Battle deaths per 1000 inhabitants', but this should have been 'Battle deaths per 10 000 inhabitant​s'. This error has no consequences for the shape of the curve or for the comments in the text. The document with the color graphs contains the correct version of figure 1.6.

The full data on the number of conflicts and battle deaths are found at and at These pages also contain codebooks and detailed information on the collection of the data.

For information on the data used in Figure 5, see:

Hallberg, Johan Dittrich (2012) 'PRIO conflict site 1989–2008: A geo-referenced dataset on armed conflict', Conflict Management and Peace Science 29(2): 219–232.

Publisher's Website


Nils Petter Gleditsch

Nils Petter Gleditsch

Research Professor; Professor Emeritus of Political Science, NTNU

Erik Melander

Erik Melander

Assistant Professor, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University

Henrik Urdal

Henrik Urdal

Research Director; Research Professor; Editor, Journal of Peace Research