In this commentary on the PRIO blog, General Lieutnant Robert Mood reflects on the military intervention in Afghanistan, successful in its immediate goal of bringing about regime change, but challenged in its longer term goals of contributing to build a functioning state. The responsibility for stabilisation and security, once you have removed a regime, is difficult to fulfill. Yet, says Mood, ‘once you have removed a regime, you become the regime’. This reflects back on the insufficiency of the military instrument itself, which can only be constructive if working in sync with a strong civilian effort.