This new case brief by Jørgen Jensehaugen examines the dilemma of inclusion/exclusion, which is one of many central problems in Arab–Israeli peacemaking, by using three instances of international mediated involvement in the conflict to highlight how mediation gatekeeping has served to exclude Palestinians, either as a people, as a political unit, or as a spoiler group.

The three historical phases used in this brief span the 1940s, the 1970s, and the 2000s. By highlighting how Palestinians have been excluded and the mediators’ role in these exclusionary negotiation formats, this brief sheds light on how the mediation terms of reference are core to understanding peacemaking dynamics

This case brief is a part of the FAIR project which is the first systematic investigation of ethical problems and solutions in peace negotiations and peace mediation. The project engages with existing debates on norms in peace negotiations and explores relevant philosophical perspectives.