This book presents three case studies on the construction and politics of religious identity in the Indian regions during the 19th century. It explores the leadership of three religions: the Hindus of Bengal, the Buddhists of Sri Lanka, and the Svetambara Jains of western India. Part 1 presents a discussion on Hinduism and focuses on Swami Vivekananda. Part 2 presents a discussion on Buddhism and focuses on Anagarika Dharmapala. Part 3 presents a discussion on Jainism and the history, archaeology, and politics of religion.