Many children and adolescents remain in their home communities when parents migrate to other countries. A wide range of negative repercussions for children have been reported, including depression, behavioural problems, involvement in delinquency and vulnerability to abuse. The prevalence of such problems undoubtedly varies. What is clear, however, is that the conditions under which families live separately have a decisive impact on the outcome of family separation for children and adolescents. These conditions can be influenced by family members, communities, civil society and governments.