The unique quality of relations between Russia and China cannot be captured by the term “partnership,” but the development of high‐level ties does not signify a process of alliance building. The two states stand, in geopolitical terms, back‐to‐back to each other, as Russia gives priority attention to the confrontation on its Western theatre and China focuses of security matters in East Asia and trade relations with the United States. The China–Russia presidential pseudo‐alliance has experienced at least three major turns in its development since the middle of this decade. Presently, it has transformed into a one‐sided Russian dependency upon indifferent China and is certain to experience further challenges, as the two parties proceed along clearly diverging courses.
Baev, Pavel K. (2018) Three turns in the evolution of China-Russia presidential pseudo-alliance, Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies 6 (1): 1–15.