Previous research and theory suggest testosterone is an important hormone for modulating aggression and selfregulation. We propose that self-construal, a culturally-relevant difference in how individuals define the self in
relation to others, may be an important moderator of the relationship between testosterone and behaviors linked
to aggression. Within two studies (Study 1 N = 80; Study 2 N = 237) and an integrated data analysis, we find
evidence suggesting that acute testosterone changes in men are positively associated with aggressive behavior
for those with more independent self-construals, whereas basal testosterone is negatively associated with aggression when individuals have more interdependent self-construals. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that self-construal moderates the association between testosterone and aggression, thereby paving the way
toward future work examining the potential cultural moderation of the behavioral effects of testosterone.