India’s e-governance architecture rests on a unique identification scheme known as Aadhaar, which issues a 12-digit ID number to Indian residents when they register their biometric data, including fingerprints and iris scans, and present valid proof of identity. Banks, government agencies and many private companies are now equipped to verify Aadhaar IDs online. Building on Aadhaar, India has also enabled direct transfer of cash benefits to Aadhaar-linked bank accounts. India’s e-governance system has gained traction during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite persistent concerns about privacy and data security.
Kolås, Åshild (2022) India's Biometric ID: Post-Pandemic Integrations, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.