There are in fact three discrete conflicts in the disputed territory of Kashmir: exchange of fire between India and Pakistan along the Line of Control, fighting in Siachen, and conflict between Indian security forces and militants in Jammu and Kashmir. The last-mentioned conflict in particular has a highly complicated structure where responsibilities for violence cannot be easily compartmentalized. Today, in the nuclear era on the subcontinent, the peace of the world may be more directly affected by the Kashmir problem than in the previous half-century. At a series of meetings between India and Pakistan in late 1998-early 1999, many positive generalities have been uttered, but there has been no meeting of minds. The disputes have given rise to so much acrimony that they cannot be dealt with bilaterally. One solution would be to introduce third-party - UN - verification of confidence-building measures, and UN-sponsored mediation.
Cloughley, Brian (1999) Violence in Kashmir, Security Dialogue 30 (2): 225–238.