Uzbek officials have for more than 20 years defined the situation in Afghanistan as the main threat to Uzbekistan’s national security. Even so, Tashkent has deliberately limited its involvement with Afghanistan. How can this paradox be understood? By analyzing the Uzbek policy towards Afghanistan, this policy brief aims to reach stakeholders working with Afghanistan in a neighborhood perspective. Since the Uzbek regime limits access to information, analyses on Uzbekistan remain scant.