Three main issues are decisive for border management at Rafah. The first concerns the respective roles of the Palestinian and Egyptian authorities in any prospective border agreement. The second, which is between Egypt and the European Union, concerns the nature of a possible cooperative management system. The third, which is primarily an issue for Egypt and Israel, relates to borderland security. The May 2011 announcement by Egypt’s interim government that the Rafah border crossing would be reopened on a permanent basis suggests that new mechanisms and procedures might soon be used to govern the crossing’s operation and administration.