Large ‘youth bulges’ increase the risk of democracies collapsing and armed conflicts breaking out. Responding to this perceived political threat, governments’ response may be to increase repression. And it is in the context of large youth bulges that the ‘Arab Spring’ occurred with those participating in protests being the youngest and the most educated. While the Middle East and North Africa are rapidly maturing demographically, low economic and political opportunities for the youth in the region remain a major concern.
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