The 2011-2012 electoral cycle in the Russian Federationyielded unexpected post-election protests that continue to challenge the Putinregime. This new work uses survey dataof protesters on both sides of the regime divide to test competing individual-levelexplanations of protest participation. Preliminary analysis underscores that anti-regime protesters differsignificantly from their pro-regime counterparts and suggest that furthereconomic modernization will continue to erode support for the regime. The protests have already provoked significantchanges within Russian political society, the institutional structure, and theregime’s strategies for dealing with dissent. Placed in comparative context, this work provides insight into thedynamics of “colored revolutions” as well as the durability ofsemi-authoritarian regimes.