This project will look at two distinct yet comparative cases: Cyprus and Kosovo. Specifically, it will seek to develop a better policy understanding over the role of gender and security in peacekeeping missions and operations in cases of protracted conflict, with Cyprus and Kosovo as case studies. Both cases, while currently at ceasefire, fall between facilitated peace processes, with a looming risk of violence breaking out again. In both country contexts, the link between gender and security in the comparative sense is an understudied concept, with limited literature on a useful analysis on (a) Cyprus itself as a case study encompassing gender-security in peace operations and (b) a comparative examination between Kosovo and Cyprus. While research has mostly focused on newer, more modern missions and operations such as EULEX Kosovo when examining the gender dimension, there is a considerable gap in research and policy when examining older missions, with particular reference to Cyprus. As such, this project aims at comparing both Kosovo and Cyprus in order to assess the differences and to highlight the gaps between 'older' and 'newer' missions, with emphasis on the link between gender and security in peace operations.