This report looks at two distinct yet comparative cases: Cyprus and Kosovo, a case of two small communities with a violent past. Specifically, the report seeks to develop a better policy understanding over the role of gender and security in peacekeeping missions and operations in cases of protracted conflict, with Cyprus and Kosovo as case studies. In doing so, feminist thinking within Security Studies is integrated into a revised approach for Securitisation Theory, which is employed as a model to conceptualise protracted conflicts in small states and communities. We understand 'protracted conflicts' as "intense and violent conflict over important issues persisting for long periods of time". Both Cyprus and Kosovo, while currently at ceasefire, fall between facilitated peace processes, with a looming risk of violence breaking out again. In both country contexts, the link between gender and security in the comparative sense is an understudied concept, with limited literature on a useful analysis on (a) Cyprus itself as a case study encompassing gender-security in peace operations and (b) a comparative examination between Kosovo and Cyprus. While research has mostly focused on newer, more modern missions and operations, such as EULEX Kosovo when examining the gender dimension, there is a considerable gap in research and policy when examining older missions, with particular reference to Cyprus. As such, this report compares both Kosovo and Cyprus in order to assess the differences and to highlight the gaps between 'older' and 'newer' missions, with emphasis on the link between gender and security in peace operations. The end product is utilising knowledge from good practices in peacekeeping in Kosovo, which can then be made available for the case of Cyprus as well.