Reno shows that Somalia illustrates the difficulty of supporting and assisting the right people in stabilisation. In contrast to the official narrative of stabilisation, efforts in Somalia exposed the flawed assumptions of security sector reform and security force assistance, not least because of insurgent infiltration, corruption and collusion. Reno argues that a pragmatic solution is needed, and he sets out the key steps to take in upstream planning.
Reno, William (2019) The Dilemmas of Security Assistance to a Failed State: Lessons from Somalia’, in Before Military Intervention: Upstream Stabilisation in Theory and Practice. Berlin: Springer (55–77).