Demographic projections indicate that the majority of countries in Central Sahel will continue to experience rapid population growth until at least 2050, due to the high fertility rates in the region. As this trend continues, it becomes crucial to find ways to improve the region’s human capital in order to mitigate the risk of armed conflict and terrorism. Equally important, such improvements in human capital are essential for the region to harness the demographic dividend. Despite recent progress to make such improvements, these efforts remain inadequate. Further investment in education, vocational training, and gender equality are highly needed across the region.