The present essay argues that the ancient Hindu acharyas (teachers) and rulers came up with nuanced and complex theories and techniques of COIN. This was because the multi-religious and polyethnic agrarian bureaucratic empires of ancient India faced a multitude of armed insurrections. The essay shows that the Hindu theorists and emperors of ancient India had hit upon the policy of winning the hearts and minds of the people in the disturbed areas through initiation of large-scale welfare measures backed by coercive force. Further, the policy of dhamma buttressed the welfare centric COIN of the ancient Indian rulers.
Roy, Kaushik (2021) Kalaha, Vigraha and Yuddha in Ancient India: Circa 500 BCE- Circa 650 CE, Small Wars & Insurgencies. DOI: 10.1080/09592318.2021.1975525.