Combining empirical examples from domestic counterinsurgency operations, with historical and primary field data in longitudinal cases of peacekeeping participation by the Indian troops, we develop a preliminary theory of troop reticence. We find that while there is significant learning around civilian protection on the part of Indian troops from internal counterinsurgency operations, there are also important operational differences. Problems with insubordination to international command, gaps in intelligence analysis, and ambiguity over the rules of engagement amidst host-state directed armed attacks on civilians, can make troops hesitant to execute the protection of civilians (PoC) mandate more robustly.
Podder, Sukanya & Kaushik Roy (2022) Use of force to protect civilians in United Nations peacekeeping: Military culture, organisational learning and troop reticence, Civil Wars. DOI: 10.1080/13698249.2022.2119506.