Population Pressure, Horizontal Inequalities and Political Violence: A Disaggregated Study of Indonesian Provinces, 1990-2003

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Østby, Gudrun; Henrik Urdal; Zulfan Tadjoeddin; S. Mansoob Murshed; & Håvard Strand (2011) Population Pressure, Horizontal Inequalities and Political Violence: A Disaggregated Study of Indonesian Provinces, 1990-2003, Journal of Development Studies 47(3): 377–398.

Population Pressure, Horizontal Inequalities and Political Violence: A Disaggregated Study  of Indonesian Provinces, 1990-2003

Abstract:

All parts of a country are rarely equally affected by political violence. Yet statistical studies largely fail to address sub-national conflict dynamics. We address this gap studying variations in 'routine' and 'episodic' violence between Indonesian provinces from 1990 to 2003. Within a grievance framework, the article focuses on the violence potential of resource scarcity and population pressure, as well as inter-group dynamics related to polarisation and horizontal inequality. Demographic pressure and inequality seem to have little effect in isolation. However, in provinces where population growth is high, greater levels of inequality between religious groups appear to increase the violence risk.

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Authors

Gudrun Østby

Gudrun Østby

Senior Researcher

Henrik Urdal

Henrik Urdal

Research Professor; Editor, Journal of Peace Research

S. Mansoob Murshed

S. Mansoob Murshed

Professor of the Economics of Conflict and Peace, Institute of Social Studies, the Netherlands

Håvard Strand

Håvard Strand

Senior Researcher