Østby, Gudrun; Henrik Urdal; Mohammad Zulfan Tadjoeddin; S. Mansoob Murshed & Håvard Strand (2011) Population Pressure, Horizontal Inequality and Political Violence: A Disaggregated Study of Indonesian Provinces, 1990–2003, Journal of Development Studies 47(3): 377–398.
All parts of a country are rarely equally affected by political violence. Yet statistical studies largely fail to address sub-national conflict dynamics. We address this gap studying variations in 'routine' and 'episodic' violence between Indonesian provinces from 1990 to 2003. Within a grievance framework, the article focuses on the violence potential of resource scarcity and population pressure, as well as inter-group dynamics related to polarisation and horizontal inequality. Demographic pressure and inequality seem to have little effect in isolation. However, in provinces where population growth is high, greater levels of inequality between religious groups appear to increase the violence risk.
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Research Director; Research Professor; Editor, Journal of Peace Research
Professor of the Economics of Conflict and Peace, Institute of Social Studies, the Netherlands
The Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) conducts research on the conditions for peaceful relations between states, groups and people.