Less than three years after gaining independence South Sudan faces a new civil war. Since December 2013 over a million people have been displaced and more than ten thousand killed in fighting between the government and SPLM/A-in-Opposition (SPLM/A-IO), led by former Vice President Riek Machar. Brutal targeting of civilians along ethnic lines has resulted in condemnation by the international community. The involvement of armed civilians in carrying out such atrocities, and their relations with the rebel forces and conventional army, are poorly understood. This has major implications for the international community’s efforts to mitigate the cycle of violence. Based on extensive field research, this report focuses on Nuer civilians who are fighting on the side of the SPLM/A-in-Opposition in the current civil war, popularly known as the White Army.