This project concerns how actors involved in peace processes can respond to expectations and demands that individuals behind serious human rights violations (which may amount to core international crimes) are held accountable for the atrocities or face consequences in other ways. Peace actors, as well as those who provide their peace mandates, are necessarily confronted with this expectation. Their challenge is likely to grow with the strengthening of the international criminal justice movement and its calls for peace with justice. How can peace actors best balance the interests of peace and justice? What are the justice- or accountability-related measures available to peace actors? Comparing such measures – their strengths, weaknesses and functional interrelationships – requires systematic analysis. How can peace actors tailor such measures to the specific circumstances of each peace process in the most cost-effective way? The Project seeks to develop an instrumentalist approach to the frequently invoked conflict between peace processes and accountability-related measures or responses to serious human rights violations which may amount to core international crimes.