Transnational ties are strong in Chot Dheeran, where international out-migration shapes local development. Yet the impacts of migration often reflect socio-economic disparity and perceptions are mixed. International out-migration – largely to Europe – shapes ideas about the future, livelihoods, standards of wealth, ambition and life satisfaction.
Very few legal pathways to Europe mean that most migrate irregularly. Nearly one in five young adults (18%) have experienced a failed migration attempt.
Some 38% of young men do not think that they will be living in Chot Dheeran in five years – and almost all of these men (94%) do not expect to be in Pakistan.