Transnational ties are strong in Chot Dheeran, where international out-migration shapes local development. Yet the impacts of migration often reflect socio-economic disparity and perceptions are mixed.
Very few legal pathways to Europe mean that most migrate irregularly. Nearly one in five young adults (18%) have experienced a failed migration attempt.
Some 38% of young men do not think that they will be living in Chot Dheeran in five years – and almost all of these men (94%) do not expect to be in Pakistan.