The intention of most peace agreements is to convert members of armed groups into peaceful and socially active citizens who can participate politically through democratic means. But how are post-conflict contexts and conditions made conducive to such participation? And what does it take for female ex-combatants to become socially and politically active in these contexts? In several cases, reintegration of female ex-combatants means having them leave an armed group with relatively progressive gender relations only to reintegrate into a society where gender inequality and violence against women is the norm. How can these post-conflict challenges be met?