Submissions and enquiries

Submitting authors, please consult our Notes for Authors (below). Please note that from 1 December 2009, JPR uses the Sagetrack manuscript tracking system. Please register all new submissions and resubmissions at Manuscript Central.

In order to get a manuscript published in the Journal of Peace Research, it must be completely compliant with JPR style. After conditional acceptance, authors must make sure to revise the manuscript in accordance with the guidelines. The most important technical requirements are described in this checklist (.pdf). Please make sure to follow each point in the checklist before submitting the final version.

Authors who use Endnote should use this style.


SAGE Publications handle all subscriptions and sales for JPR.

Contact information

Please send enquiries to

Mailing address The Editor Journal of Peace Research PRIO PO Box 9229 Grønland NO-0134 Oslo Norway

Visiting / delivery address (how to find) Journal of Peace Research PRIO Hausmanns gate 7 NO-0186 Oslo Norway

Notes for Authors

1. Submissions

All manuscripts should be submitted via Sagetrack.

The system provides step-by step instructions on how to submit. If you encounter difficulties with Sagetrack, please contact the Editorial Office at

At first submission, we require that the manuscript:

  1. be anonymous (author details should appear only on separate title page; see Section 6);
  2. uses the author-date citation system;
  3. includes an alphabetical list of references;
  4. complies in word count (maximum 10,000 words for regular articles, 6.000 words for special data features and viewpoint articles, and 5,000 words for review essays, including all elements*), although an excess 10% is accepted at first submission;
  5. uses ample line spacing throughout (1.5 or double);
  6. includes an abstract (200–300 words).

* Maximum word count includes title page including abstract + keywords, article text, footnotes/end notes, all figures and tables content, references, bio sketches, replication statement, funding statement, acknowledgements… with the exception of online appendices.

After conditional acceptance, we require that the manuscript follows points (2)–(6) above and, in addition:

  1. be completely compliant with JPR style (see detailed instructions in Sections 7–17);
  2. includes a first page with a) name and affiliation (department and institution) of author(s), b) abstract, c) keywords, and d) e-mail address of corresponding author;
  3. includes a replication data statement (see Section 18);
  4. includes a bibliographical statement (see Section 20);
  5. includes a funding statement if the research was supported by a funding source.

2. Editorial policies

Submitted manuscripts are initially read and evaluated by the Editorial Office. We aim at making a decision on whether to send manuscripts for peer review within three weeks. For manuscripts that are sent to referees, we try to complete the evaluation process within three months.

As a general rule, JPR operates a double-blind peer review process in which the reviewer’s identity is withheld from the author and the author’s identity is withheld from the reviewer. Reviewers may at their own discretion opt to reveal their name to the author in their review, but our standard policy is for both identities to remain concealed.

JPR does not accept double submissions, submissions of previously published work, or ‘data slicing’, i.e. articles that represent only marginal progress from the authors’ earlier work. The editorial evaluation process is so time-consuming that we cannot set it in motion until we are sure that a manuscript presents new research and is seriously intended for JPR.

We will occasionally accept articles that are extracts from or summaries of books published at about the same time, and articles which have appeared in other languages. However, these are borderline cases. Authors should call our attention to such situations in the cover letter. You may also contact the Editorial Office at if you have any particular questions.

We do not publish comments to previously published articles in the printed version of the journal. Corrections and comments are occasionally posted electronically on our data replication page at Please contact the Editorial Office at if you have a comment or correction that you would like to post.

We do not invite revised versions of once rejected manuscripts.

  • Information regarding color options and costs should be requested from the SAGE contact sending you your article proof for checking.
  • Upon acceptance of your article, please sign the Contributor form as soon as possible to not delay the export of your article to SAGE.
  • The proof will be sent to you after the article has been copy-edited and typeset. It is unfortunately not possible to provide an estimation of time for this process.
  • For Open access options, please contact JPR’s Managing Editor at

4. Types of articles

Regular articles

Regular articles typically include a literature review, a theoretical framework, a discussion of the methodology and data, and an independent empirical analysis and discussion. Successful articles should engage in ongoing debates in the field and clearly state its contribution to an existing research literature. Regular articles can be up to 10,000 words including all elements (title page, abstract, notes, reference list, tables, biographical statement, acknowledgements, etc.). Before submitting, authors are encouraged to look at research articles previously published in the Journal of Peace Research at

Special data features

Special data features introduce new datasets or significant revisions of existing ones. In addition to describing new datasets, special data features should show how the new data can make a genuine contribution to the study of conflict and peace, for instance by pointing to results that are significantly different from previously published work. We do not require the same level of theoretical sophistication and detailed empirical investigation as for regular research articles. Furthermore, we do not require that the dataset is submitted along with the article at first submission, but authors are welcome to do so, and may find that reviewers are able to provide better feedback if given access to the data. Special data features can be up to 6,000 words including all elements (title page, abstract, notes, reference list, tables, biographical statement, acknowledgements, etc.).

An example of a special data feature is ‘Introducing Archigos: A dataset of political leaders’ by Henk E Goemans, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & Giacomo Chiozza, published in 2009 (volume 46, issue 2).

Review essays

Review essays are either ‘state-of-the-art’ articles that assess the state of knowledge within a field of research, or they deal with one or multiple books that have been very significant to peace and conflict studies. Review essays must involve key thematic areas within JPR. Review essays can be up to 5,000 words including all elements (title page, abstract, notes, reference list, tables, biographical statement, acknowledgements, etc.).

An example of a review essay is ‘Is war declining–and why?’ by Azar Gat, published in 2008 (volume 50, issue 2).

5. Language

Articles should be able to communicate clearly with an international audience. A basic criterion is clarity of expression, while a secondary aim is ‘elegance in style’.

We allow both UK and US spelling, as long as there is consistency within the article. For UK spelling, we use -ize [standardize, normalize] but -yse [analyse, paralyse]. For US spelling, -ize/-yze are the standard [civilize/analyze]. Note also we use serial comma [red, white, and blue] for US spelling.

Since JPR is an international journal, authors should avoid ‘nationalistic’ language such as the use of ‘us’ for their own nation or group of nations and ‘them’ for others. We encourage gender-neutral language wherever possible.

Abbreviations should be used sparingly and explained the first time they occur. Authors should also avoid colloquialisms.

We prefer USA (not ‘America’) for the name of the country, and US as an adjective.

After conditional acceptance, the manuscript should be referred to as ‘article’ instead of ‘paper’, ‘manuscript’, etc.

After conditional acceptance, authors must make sure that the use of personal pronoun is correct. Articles with single authors should use ‘I’, ‘my’, etc., while articles by multiple co-authors should use ‘we’, ‘our’, etc.

6. Anonymization

In order to facilitate a blinded review process, authors must make sure that their manuscript is properly anonymized before submitting to JPR:

  1. Remove names, affiliations, acknowledgements, funding information, etc. from the manuscript. This information should be included in a separate title page.
  2. Limit the number of self-references in the manuscript to those that are relevant for reviewers. Self-references may be reinserted upon conditional acceptance.
  3. Avoid phrases like ‘as we have shown before’, ‘using our original definition’, etc.
  4. Replace your name with ‘Author’ if a reference can reveal your identity.

7. Abstract

Abstracts should be between 200 and 300 words. A shorter abstract may suffice for very short articles. An abstract should summarize the actual content of the article, rather than merely relate what subject the article deals with. It is more important to state an interesting finding than to detail the kind of data used: instead of ‘the hypothesis was tested’, the outcome of the test should be stated. Abstracts should be written in the present tense and in the third person (‘This article deals with ...’) or passive (‘... is discussed and rejected’). Please consider carefully what terms to include in order to increase the visibility of the abstract in electronic searches.

8. Title and headings

‘Sentence case’ (instead of ‘Capitalizing Each Word’) should be used for the title as well as all headings, subheadings, variable names, and table and figure contents.

Sections should not be numbered. This makes it important to distinguish between levels of subheads in the ms. by typographical means (using bold, italic, etc.).

Turning away from terrorism: Lessons from psychology, sociology, and criminology

Table I. Factors for terrorist disengagement

Figure 3. Predicted levels of fragmentation by factor in wartime

9. Quotations

Use ‘single’ quotation marks for quoted words, phrases and sentences run into the text. “Double” quotation marks should be used only for ‘quotations “within” quotations’.

Longer quotations (40 words or more) should be indented without quotation marks and double-spaced in the manuscript. Ample space should be left before and after such quotations. They will be indented and appear in smaller type in the printed article.

Responsibility for the accuracy of quotations, as well as for permission to quote extensively, rests with the author.

All quotes must be referred to with page number(s).

If quotes have been shortened, place ‘...’ inside brackets: ‘[...]’:

Ramsbotham & Woodhouse (1996: 113) define humanitarian intervention as ‘cross-border action by the international community in response to human suffering made up of “forcible humanitarian intervention” [...] and “non-forcible humanitarian intervention”’.

10. Notes

Notes (footnotes or endnotes) should be used only where substantive information is conveyed to the reader. Mere literature references should normally not necessitate separate notes. Notes should appear as footnotes in the final version of the manuscript (after conditional acceptance), but they may be either footnotes or endnotes in earlier versions. Notes are numbered with Arabic numerals, and they are included in the word count.

11. Models and equations

When referring to specific models, equations, figures, and tables, capital first letter should be used in model/s, equation/s, figure/s, and table/s.

‘Our baseline results are detailed in Table II.’

‘However, the substantive effects are roughly equal to those found in Model 3, Table II.’

‘The first models included the control variables and then added the main explanatory variables in iterations to view the main and interaction effects.’

Equations should be included within the main text and numbered in parentheses at the right-hand side, e.g.

x + y = z (1)

xy = a (2)

In equations, all characters other than numerals and mathematical symbols should be italicized (including subscripts and superscripts). If the equation is likely to run over one line, please indicate suitable places to ‘break’ the equation. Equations should not appear in footnotes.

In the text, equations should be referred to in this style:

‘As Equation (3) shows […]’

12. Tables and figures

Tables and figures should be self-explanatory as far as possible, and headings should be fairly brief. Additional explanatory material should be added in notes immediately below the table or figure, clearly set off from the rest of the text. Such notes should not be preceded by the word ‘Note’. JPR has no categories such as diagrams, charts, or maps, so the author should decide whether they are tables (with quantitative data or text) or figures (with graphical data).

All table and figure contents should be in ‘Sentence case’. Please aim to include full words instead of abbreviations in table and figure contents.

Table and figure numbers should be followed by full stop (not colon).

Tables should be numbered with Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, etc.). The Table heading should be placed above the table and have no end punctuation.

Table I. Exports of major weapon systems to the Third World, 2004

Figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.). Figure headings should be placed below the figure.

Figure 1. Number of armed conflicts by type, 1946–2006

At original submission, tables and figures should be included in the main text and should not be placed at the end of the document.

The results are presented in Table I below.

Table I. Logit regression results, 1946–2010

Dependent variable: Civil war

Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4

If the article is accepted for publication (i.e. after conditional acceptance), tables and figures should be placed at the end of the document (following the reference list) and uploaded as individual files. A text indicator/place holder should be inserted after the paragraph where the table is first mentioned, in the following manner:

The results are presented in Table I below.

Table I in here

Figure format and resolution: In the final version of the manuscript, figures must be provided in high quality .eps, .tif, or .jpg files (at least 350 dpi). A description of how to produce high-resolution figures in Stata and R can be found at The Political Methodologist. If the figures are too large to be uploaded to Sagetrack, they can be sent to in a zip-file

Furthermore, figures in the final version of the manuscript must be understandable in black and white print, so please use colors that are easily distinguishable in greyscale. Although figures will appear in the original colors in the online version of the article, they will appear in greyscale in the printed version of the issue if the authors have not paid for color print (see Section X). It is also common among readers downloading articles to print them in greyscale.

13. Statistical significance

We generally discourage the reporting of statistical significance at the 10% level. However, if you do wish to retain 10% significance levels, please do provide an explanation, and use a cross (‘†’) to signify 10% statistical significance. Use asterisks (*) for the other significance levels (i.e., one for 5%; two for 1%, and three for 0.1%). Explain significance levels in the note below regression tables, and include a note if one-tailed tests are used.

14. Numbers, percentage, and dates

Numbers higher than ten should be expressed as figures (e.g. five, eight, ten, but 21, 99, 100).

Numbers from 1,000 and above should be comma separated by the 1000s.

The use of decimals in tables (and in the text) should be consistent. The use of maximum three decimals is encouraged.

For numbers between 1 and -1, the use of zero before decimal marks should be consistent in the text, tables and figures, i.e. either ‘0.003’ or ‘.003’.

The % sign is used rather than the word ‘percent’ (0.3%, 3%, 30%).

Dates should be written in the following form: ‘11 June 2014’.

15. Variables

Variables described in the text should be italicized and written in ‘Sentence case’.

The original source must be referred to for all variables used, and coding criteria must be explained if a variable has been made by the author(s). The version number of the dataset used should also be specified.

If a journal article introducing the dataset has been published, this must be cited. In addition, an URL to the dataset should be provided in a footnote or in the reference list (see Section 17, under the subheading ‘Datasets’). If not, the creators of the dataset should be cited.

In the text:

The variable Foreign nonviolence allt–1 is from Chenoweth & Lewis (2013a,b). It is measured as the percentage of all other autocracies in the international system that experienced an ongoing nonviolent campaign in the previous year. The variable Democracy is based on the –10 to 10 Polity IV scale (Marshall, Gurr & Jaggers, 2014).

In the reference list:

Chenoweth, Erica & Orion Lewis (2013) Nonviolent and violent campaigns and outcomes (NAVCO) data project, version 2.0. Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver (

Chenoweth, Erica & Orion Lewis (2013) Unpacking nonviolent campaigns: Introducing the NAVCO 2.0 dataset. Journal of Peace Research 50(3): 415–423.

Marshall, Monty G; Ted Robert Gurr & Keith Jaggers (2014) Polity IV project: Political regime characteristics and transitions, 1800–2013. Center for Systemic Peace (

16. Abbreviations

Acronyms and abbreviations should be used sparingly, and explained the first time they occur. Do not use full stop after abbreviations in the text nor in the reference list.

17. References

JPR uses the author-date citation system with references to authors and publication year in the text, and an alphabetical list of references at the end of the document.

The source of all empirical claims and data used must be properly acknowledged, and authors must also make sure that all references in the text are in the reference list, and that all references in the reference list are cited in the text.

Following conditional acceptance, all references in the text and in the reference list must follow JPR style. Below follows an explanation of JPR’s reference style for in-text references, the reference list, and for archival material.

In-text references

Comma is used to separate the author from the year, colon is used to separate the year from the page number, and semicolon is used to separate between references to different authors:

(Forrester, 1971: 22).

(Forrester, 1971; Singer, 1980).

(Forrester, 1971: 22; Singer, 1980: 6).

For further discussion, see Forrester (1971).

Ampersand (&) is used instead of ‘and’ for references to two and three authors, and comma is not used before the ampersand. ‘et al.’ is used for four (4) or more authors:

(Bueno de Mesquita et al., 2002; Remmer, Optow & Merkx, 1982).

(Doyle & Sambanis, 2000: 105).

See Remmer, Optow & Merkx (1982); Forrester (1971); Singer (1980, 1981).

For references to two or more publications by the same author in different years, the author’s name is written once, and the years are included within the same parenthesis and separated by comma and space. For references to two or more publications by the same author in the same year, the author’s name and year are written once, and the publications are named with letters (a-z). These appear right after the year and are separated with comma and no space:

See Wallensteen (1995, 1996).

See Wallensteen (1995a,b).

Reference list

In references to multi-authored works, semicolon is used after first author, comma is used thereafter, and ampersand (&) is used to separate between the two last authors:

Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce; Alastair Smith, Randolph M Siverson & James D Morrow (2003)

Authors’ full names should be included if applicable. Initials can be accepted for middle names if these are not usually spelled out. Full stop is not used after initials. If there are two abbreviations in a name, these should be merged into one word:

‘Singer, J David’ instead of ‘Singer, J. D.’

‘Gleditsch, Nils Petter’ instead of ‘Gleditsch, Nils P’

‘Davies, Graeme AM’ instead of ‘Davies, Graeme A M’

URLs should be provided to all references to datasets, working papers, reports, newspaper articles, etc. if possible. Place URLs in parentheses at the end of the reference, with no full stop before the parenthesis, and full stop after:

Brinkman, Henk-Jan & Cullen S Hendrix (2011) Food insecurity and violent conflict: Causes, consequences, and addressing the challenges. World Food Programme Occasional Paper 24 (

‘Sentence case’ should be used for titles of journal articles, book chapters, newspaper articles, working papers, etc. ‘Capitalize Each Word’ should be used for book titles and names of journals (which should also be in italics).

Sentence case:

Commitment problems or bidding wars? Rebel fragmentation as peace building

Capitalize Each Word:

Between Peace and War: The Nature of International Crisis

In references to books and book chapters, both the city of publication as well as the publisher should be provided (e.g. New York: Cambridge University Press). For books published in the USA except for the city of New York, add the Postal Service two-letter codes for the individual states (e.g. MA (Massachusetts), CO (Colorado), DC (District of Columbia)):

Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.

New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

New York: Cambridge University Press.

London: Routledge.

The reference list should be ordered alphabetically according to the last name of the first author. With several publications by the same first author, we use the following order:

  1. Single first author: date order (oldest first), then first letter of publication title.
  2. First author plus one co-author: alphabetical order of second co-author, then date order, then first letter of publication title.
  3. First author plus two co-authors: alphabetical order of second co-author, then alphabetical order of third co-author if first and second are the same, then date order, then first letter of publication title.Note: First author's first name is followed by a semicolon.

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede (2002) All International Politics is Local: The Diffusion of Conflict, Integration, and Democratization. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede (2007) Transnational dimensions of civil war. Journal of Peace Research 44(3): 293–309.

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede & Kyle Beardsley (2004) Nosy neighbors third-party actors in central American conflicts. Journal of Conflict Resolution 48(3): 379–402.

Gleditsch, Kristian S & Michael D Ward (1997) Double take: A reexamination of democracy and autocracy in modern polities. Journal of Conflict Resolution 41(3): 361–383.

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede & Michael D Ward (2013) Forecasting is difficult, especially about the future: Using contentious issues to forecast interstate disputes. Journal of Peace Research 50(1): 17–31.

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Nils W Metternich & Andrea Ruggeri (2014) Data and progress in peace and conflict research. Journal of Peace Research 51(2): 301–314.

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede; Idean Salehyan & Kenneth Schultz (2008). Fighting at home, fighting abroad: How civil wars lead to international disputes. Journal of Conflict Resolution 52(4): 479–506.


Book titles should be written in italics and use ‘Capitalize Each Word’. Both the city of publication and the publisher should be provided. Books published in the USA except for in the city of New York should include the two-letter Postal Service state code.

Lijphart, Arend (1977) Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Norris, Pippa (2008) Driving Democracy: Do Power-Sharing Institutions Work? New York: Cambridge University Press.

Thee, Marek (1986) Military Technology, Military Strategy and the Arms Race. London: Croom Helm/New York: St. Martin’s.

Edited books should include ‘, ed.’ for a single editor and ‘, eds’ (without full stop) for multiple editors, after the name of the editor(s).

Bellamy, Alex J & Paul D Williams, eds (2013) Providing Peacekeepers: The Politics, Challenges, and Future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contributions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stewart, Frances, ed. (2008) Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book chapters

Titles of book chapters use ‘Sentence case’, while the book title should be italicized and use ‘Capitalize Each Word’. Use ‘(ed.)’ for single editors, and ‘(eds)’ (without full stop) for two or more editors. Page numbers to the chapter must be provided.

Boix, Charles (2008) Civil wars and guerrilla warfare in the contemporary world: Toward a joint theory of motivations and opportunities. In: Stathis N Kalyvas, Ian Shapiro & Tarek Masoud (eds) Order, Conflict, and Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 197–218.

Gellner, Ernest (1978) Scale and nation. In: Fredrik Barth (ed.) Scale and Social Organization. Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 133–149.

If three or more chapters from the same book are cited, use the following short form, and include a separate reference to the edited book (in this case Midlarsky, 1984):

Levy, Jack S (1984) The diversionary theory of war: A critique, in Midlarsky, 259–288.

Journal articles

References to journal articles should include journal volume and number, as well as page numbers. Titles of journal articles should use ‘Sentence case’. The journal name should be in italics and use ‘Capitalize Each Word’.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Peter Wallensteen, Mikael Eriksson, Margareta Sollenberg & Håvard Strand (2002) Armed conflict 1946–2001: A new dataset. Journal of Peace Research 39(5): 615–637.

Shortland, Anja; Christopoulou Katerina & Makatsoris Charalampos (2013) War and famine, peace and light? The economic dynamics of conflict in Somalia 1993–2009. Journal of Peace Research 50(5): 545–561.

For journal articles that are ‘online first’, but have not been slated into an issue, refer to ‘forthcoming’ instead of the year when the article appeared online first and include the DOI number.

Asal, Victor; Michael Findley, James A Piazza & James Igoe Walsh (forthcoming) Political exclusion, oil, and ethnic armed conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution. DOI: 10.1177/0022002714567948.

Newspaper articles

Titles of newspaper articles should be written in ‘Sentence case’. The name of the newspaper should be written in italics. References should either include the page number where the article appeared in the print, or the URL to the online version (or both). Publishing date should be included right after the name of the newspaper.

Mayabi, Lordrick (2012) Kenya: Kikuyu, Kalenjin elders adopt peace accord. AllAfrica 7 June (

Polgreen, Lydia (2007) Raid on African Union imperils Darfur talks. International Herald Tribune 3 October: 2.

Reports and working papers

References to working papers and reports should be as detailed and accurate as possible and include an URL to the publication. Titles should be written in ‘Sentence case’. Before citing a working paper, authors must check whether it has been published, and if so, the reference must be updated to the published version.

Huber, John D & Laura Mayoral (2013) Inequality, ethnicity and civil conflict. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Political Science, Columbia University (

Hultman, Lisa; Jacob Kathman & Megan Shannon (2013) Beyond keeping peace: United Nations effectiveness in the midst of fighting. Paper presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, Chicago (

UNRISD (2010) Combating poverty and inequality: Structural change, social policy and politics. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (


References to datasets should contain as much information as possible, including an URL to the downloadable data.

Marshall, Monty G; Ted Robert Gurr & Keith Jaggers (2014) Polity IV project: Political regime characteristics and transitions, 1800–2013. Center for Systemic Peace (

World Bank (2013) World Development Indicators (

Texts in other languages than English

Titles of sources in languages other than English should be cited in the original language with an English translation added in brackets. Note that the brackets are not italicized.

Greiner, Ben (2004) An online recruitment system for economic experiments. In: Kurt Kremer & VolkerMacho (eds) Forschung und Wissenschaftliches Rechnen [Research and Scientific Computing]. Gottingen: Datenverarbeitung, 79–93.

Kobayashi, Naoki (1963) Nihon ni okeru Kempodotai no Bunseki [A Dynamic Analysis of the Japanese Constitution]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.

Archival material

References to archival material should be in author-date format in the text and appear in the reference list. The full name of the series should be stated when referenced for the first time. In the reference list, entries should contain information about author(s), the type of document (e.g. report, letter), recipient(s), date, and preferably Series, Box, Folder (which are standard archival source identifiers). The physical location of the archive should be stated, and if it is all digital, identify the hosting institution and comment upon the origins of the archive. If the archive is available online, please provide URLs to the documents.


Tools for managing references


Authors who use the EndNote program for references may download the JPR style from

Please note that Endnote cannot produce the semicolon after the first name of the first author for a publication with more than two authors. This must be edited manually. You will probably also need to adjust some other issues in the reference list manually.


A JPR bibliography style for LaTeX is available at Please use the jpr.bst file and follow the instructions provided on the website.

You will probably also need to adjust some issues in the reference list manually. An easy way to manually edit references in LaTeX is to first compile the document with the jpr.bst file. Once compiled, you will obtain a .bbl file, which contains all the references used in the article. Delete the two lines in your main .tex file that control the bibtex processing (the \bibliography and \bibliographystyle commands) and paste the entire content of the .bbl file into the .tex file. You can then manually edit the list of references that is now part of the main .tex file.

When submitting the final version of the manuscript (following conditional acceptance), please upload all files necessary to compile the .pdf file.

18. JPR research transparency and replication data policy

The Journal of Peace Research is committed to data sharing and scientific transparency and has signed onto the Data Access and Research Transparency (DA-RT) Joint Statement.

Replication data for articles using quantitative data

Authors of articles using quantitative data are required to facilitate the replication of their empirical analysis (including the creation of tables and figures) through the posting of:

  1. The data (in the original format and preferably also in text format, e.g. csv);
  2. A file containing the exact commands used in the empirical analysis (often referred to as ‘do’, ‘batch’, ‘syntax’, or ‘run’ files), which should be clearly commented and include references to all empirical claims made;
  3. A codebook or any other relevant description of the variables and the dataset;
  4. A file containing the actual output from the statistical software used (often referred to as ‘log’ or ‘output’);
  5. A ‘readme’ document including a summary of all replication materials and a brief description of each of the files.

Following conditional acceptance, the following replication data paragraph (or some appropriate variation) should be included in the manuscript immediately following the main text and before the list of references:

Replication data

The dataset, codebook, and do-files for the empirical analysis in this article, along with the online appendix, are available at [the author’s own URL may be included in addition]. All analyses were conducted using [statistical program].

Research transparency documentation for qualitative data

Authors of articles using qualitative data are asked to include a description of the data collection, ethics, and analysis in the article itself, and to provide and Online appendix to provide additional documentation, such as interview guides and more details about the conditions of the data collection proceures and analysis to increase research transparency. When permissible from an ethical and legal perspective, authors are also encouraged to create an online archive of the interview transcript, oral histories, or other materials used for the research that are otherwise dificult to obtain.

Following conditional acceptance, the following research transparency paragraph (or some appropriate variation) should be included in the manuscript immediately following the main text and before the list of references:

Research transparency and data

The Online appendix, which includes additional information regarding the data collection procedures, ethical considerations, and interview documentation, is available at

Following Conditonal acceptance, authors must send their replication material to the Editorial Office at The files are posted at when the article has been published in print. Authors are, of course, free to post the data on their own websites as well. Articles will not be published before the replication material have been submitted.

19. Acknowledgements and funding

Following conditional acceptance, an acknowledgements section and a funding section can be included at the end of the main text if desired (before the reference list, but after the replication data statement). This information should be included in the final version of the manuscript only.


We have profited from helpful comments provided by three anonymous referees, the editor of JPR, and our colleagues.


We gratefully acknowledge support from […].

20. Biographical statement

A bibliographical statement must be included after conditional acceptance. It should appear immediately after the list of references, and all co-authors should provide separate biographies.

The bibliographies should be brief and include:

  1. Full name;
  2. Year of birth (NOT MANDATORY);
  3. Highest academic degree and field of the degree (Economics, Political Science, etc.), the year this was achieved, and the institution where this was obtained;
  4. Current position and institutional affiliation, and the start year of current position;
  5. Authors may also indicate their present main research interest or recent authored or edited books as well as other institutional affiliations which have occupied a major portion of their professional lives.

Use capital initials for subjects (Economics, Political Science), degrees (Cand.Polit.), and positions (Assistant Professor), and do not use full stops in PhD, MA, MSc, etc.

ABDULAH NASSA, b. 1947, PhD in Economics (University of Michigan, 1966); Associate Professor, Florida State University (1964– ); various visiting academic positions in Sudan, India, and Britain. Most recent book: Economics of Crime (Harper & Row, 1996).

IVER IVERSEN, b. 1976, Cand. Polit. (University of Oslo, 2002); Secretary, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2002–04); University Fellow in Political Science, University of Oslo (2004– ); current main interest: global political economy. Most recent book in English: Globalization and Conflict (Sage, 2005).

21. Online appendices

Please refer to your appendices for posting on JPR’s replication page as “Online appendix” or “Online appendices”

These may be used to include important information that would unduly break up the information in the main text.

JPR operates with two kinds of appendices:

  1. Appendices that are included in the printed article and that are part of the word count. These are placed after the list of references and are referred to as ‘the Appendix’ in the text, or if there are several: ‘Appendix 1’, ‘Appendix 2’, etc. You may choose to use letters instead: ‘Appendix A’…
  2. Online appendices that are posted on JPR’s replication data page and that are not part of the world count. These are referred to as ‘the Online appendix’ in the text, or if there are several: ‘Online appendix 1’, ‘Online appendix 2’, etc. You may choose to use letters instead: ‘Online appendix A’…

When submitting to JPR, authors must indicate clearly if an appendix is a regular appendix or an online appendix. Furthermore, we ask that tables and figures in appendices are prefixed (i.e. A1, A2, etc.).

Both regular and Online appendices are normally sent out for peer review together with the manuscript. Exceptions can be made for very extensive appendices (e.g. over 25 pages).

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