Effective Non-Violence? Resistance Strategies and Political Outcomes

Led by Kristian Skrede Gleditsch
Jan 2012 - Dec 2015


​The project seeks to understand the conditions that foster the use of non-violent as opposed to violent tactics, focusing on the interaction between specific characteristics of different organizations, their constituencies, the state, and external actors. It will examine

  • why organizations seeking political change choose specific tactics
  • when non-violent actors can be an effective force for political dissent
  • how decisions to use violence or non-violent means affect the strategic interaction between the state and opposition groups
  • whether non-violent movements tend to involve specific types of actors and interests compared to violent organizations
  • how states and international actors can prevent conflicts from escalating to violence​


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Cunningham, David (2016) Preventing Civil War: How the potential for international intervention can deter conflict onset, World Politics 68(2): 307–340.
Beardsley, Kyle; David Cunningham & Peter B. White (2016) Resolving Civil Wars Before they Start: The United Nations Security Council and Conflict Prevention, British Journal of Political Science. DOI: 10.1017/S0007123415000307.
White, Peter B.; Dragana Vidovic; Belén González; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & David Cunningham (2015) Nonviolence as a Weapon of the Resourceful: From Claims to Tactics in Mobilization, Mobilization 20(4): 471–491.
Beardsley, Kyle; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & Nigel Lo (2015) Roving and Stationary Bandits in African Civil Wars, International Studies Quarterly 59(3): 503–516.
Beardsley, Kyle & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2015) Peacekeeping as Conflict Containment, International Studies Review 17(1): 67–89.
Asal, Victor; Ken Cousins & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2015) Making Ends Meet: Combining Organizational Data in Contentious Politics, Journal of Peace Research 52(1): 134–138.
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher (2013) Actor Fragmentation and Civil War Bargaining: How Internal Divisions Generate Civil Conflict, American Journal of Political Science 57(3): 659–672.


Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher (2014) Inside the Politics of Self-Determination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

PRIO Policy Brief

Gates, Scott; Marianne Dahl & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2016) Standing Idly by during the Revolution, PRIO Policy Brief, 15. Oslo: PRIO.
Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede & Mauricio Rivera Celestino (2016) Non-Violence and Democratization, PRIO Policy Brief, 16. Oslo: PRIO.
Beardsley, Kyle; David Cunningham & Peter B. White (2016) The United Nations and Conflict Prevention, PRIO Policy Brief, 17. Oslo: PRIO.
Dahl, Marianne (2016) Military Defection, PRIO Policy Brief, 18. Oslo: PRIO.
Chenoweth, Erica (2016) The Rise of Nonviolent Resistance, PRIO Policy Brief, 19. Oslo: PRIO.
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher; Marianne Dahl & Anne Frugé (2016) Diversification and Diffusion, PRIO Policy Brief, 20. Oslo: PRIO.
Cunningham, David; Belén González; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch; Dragana Vidović & Peter B. White (2016) Violence and Non-Violence in Anti-Government Mobilization, PRIO Policy Brief, 21. Oslo: PRIO.


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