WOMENsPEACE: Gender Equality, Peace and Security in Nepal and Myanmar

WOMENsPEACE:  Gender Equality, Peace and Security in Nepal and Myanmar
Led by Wenche Iren Hauge
Feb 2016 -

​Funded by the Research Council of Norway (NORGLOBAL), the PRIO project Gender Equality, Peace and Security in Nepal and Myanmar (WOMENsPEACE) starts up in February 2016. It will be led by Wenche Iren Hauge and includes Åshild Kolås, and researchers in Nepal and Myanmar.

​This project focuses on the gender dimension of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) processes in Nepal and Myanmar, and on the post-conflict political participation of female and male ex-combatants. In addition, it investigates the consequences of DDR processes for post-conflict gender equality, women and men's social inclusion and women's rights. A considerable amount of theoretical studies have been conducted on the gender dimension of DDR processes, but so far very few case studies exist. 

The WOMENsPEACE project is important - not only for providing new case studies - but also for bringing in case studies from two different types of conflict; the primarily ideological conflict in Nepal and the ethnic conflicts in Myanmar. With this new perspective, this project will contribute to moving the frontiers of knowledge on women, peace and security in particular and on post-conflict transformation in general. 

The WOMENsPEACE project is a collaborative effort between PRIO and the partner institutions Nepal Centre for Contemporary Research (NCCR) in Nepal and Ar Yone Oo (AYO) in Myanmar. In addition, the project will work with local women's associations in Nepal and Myanmar. In 2016 NCCR will organize a workshop in Kathmandu and in 2017 AYO will organize a workshop in Yangon. The objective of these workshops is to bring together women's organizations, female politicians, activists and civil society, to share experiences on the role of women in conflict, peace processes and post-conflict contexts. An international conference will also be organized in Bangkok in 2018. The conference will bring together all project partners in addition to key people from NGOs, multilateral organizations, relevant Norwegian embassies and researchers working on women's empowerment and gender equality in peace processes.

Research Groups


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Upreti, Bishnu Raj & Sharmila Shivakoti (2018) The Struggle of Female Ex-Combatants in Nepal, Peace Review: a Journal of Social Justice 30(1): 78–86.
Adhikari, Debendra Prasad (2018) Ethnographic Fieldnote Writing: Methodological Challenges in the 21st Century, Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 12(12): 98–106.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj; Sharmila Shivakoti & Kohinoor Bharati (2018) Frustrated and Confused: Mapping the Socio-political Struggles of Female Ex-combatants in Nepal, Journal of International Women's Studies 19(4): 32–52.
Adhikari, Debendra Prasad (2017) The Saga of Conflict Transformation and Peace Process in Nepal: A Unique Account, Journal of Education and Research 7(2).

Book Chapter

Upreti, Bishnu Raj & Gitta Shrestha (2017) What Happened to Nepal's Women Maoists?, in Rita Manchanda, ed., Women and Politics of Peace: South Asia Narratives on Militarisation, Power and Justice. New Dehli: Sage Publications (178–188).
Kolås, Åshild & Torunn L. Tryggestad (2017) Introduction: Women, Peace and Security in Review, in Åshild Kolås, ed., Women, Peace and Security: from Civil War to Post-Conflict Reconstruction. Abingdon: Routledge (1-8).

Edited Volume

Upreti, Bishnu Raj; Debendra Prasad Adhikari; Sharmila Shivakoti; & Åshild Kolås, eds, (2018) Nepalko Rajnitma Mahila: Donda Bebasthapandekhi Sambidhan Karyannonsamma [Women in Nepali Politics: From Conflict Management to implementation of the Constitution]. Nepal: Bhrikuti Academic Press.

PRIO Policy Brief

Kolås, Åshild & Leitanthem Umakanta Meitei (2019) Women in Ethnic Armed Organizations in Myanmar: Numbers and narratives, GPS Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: PRIO.
Upreti, Bishnu Raj & Åshild Kolås (2016) Women in Nepal’s Transition, PRIO Policy Brief, 11. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Hauge, Wenche Iren (2016) Gender Dimensions of Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.


Hansen, Julie Marie & Jenny Lorentzen (2017) Empowering Survivors of Sexual Violence in DR Congo, PRIO Gender, Peace and Security Update, 2017: PRIO.


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