Jan 2020 – Sep 2023
22 July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik massacred 77 people in a terrorist attack commonly referred to in Norway as '22 July'. The State responded with a rule of law approach to rebuild societal security. Yet beyond the criminal trial, the legal responses, including bureaucratic practices and regulatory techniques, have not been researched.
To enhance future preparedness and public accountability, this knowledge gap must be bridged. Asking 'what is the role of legal responses in rebuilding and strengthening societal security after violent extremist attacks', this interdisciplinary, qualitative project develops a conceptual and empirical basis for exploring the legal ripple effects of 22 July, implicating multiple fields of public and private law. A study of responses to terror attacks in Manchester in 1992, 1996 and 2017 provides a comparative frame.
RIPPLES will produce systematic knowledge about the legal aspects of 22 July and Manchester terror, and support policy makers and legal practitioners by providing knowledge about law's role in societal security after extremist violence. Through documentation, dissemination to the public, and communication with a broad array of stakeholders the project will contribute to public accountability and to SDG 11, 16.3 and 16.A.
The project contributes to societal security scholarship by integrating critical security studies, socio-legal studies, and doctrinal law. The transdisciplinary and international nature of the project will strengthen the portfolios of participating institutions. The inclusion of funding for PhD work and MAs will contribute to capacity building. LAW22JULY is a UiO law faculty initiative to provide knowledge to the Norwegian public and our students. The pedagogic component of RIPPLES will have long-lasting relevance for legal and societal security education.
On the occasion of the 10-year commemoration of the Oslo and Utøya attacks in 2011, the Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX) at the University of Oslo is organizing a conference on the topic, especially highlighting research and knowledge related to the tragic events.