Securing the Victory? Understanding Dynamics of Short-run and Long-term Success in Popular Uprisings and Democratization

Securing the Victory? Understanding Dynamics of Short-run and Long-term Success in Popular Uprisings and Democratization
Led by Kristian Skrede Gleditsch
Jul 2018 - Jun 2023

This project seeks to understand why some non-violent uprisings help foster democratization while others do not, and will examine how dissident tactics can help promote transitions to democracy and democratic consolidation.

Nonviolent movements have often succeeded in unseating dictators, but short-term success does not guarantee long-term success. Many initially successful challenges have failed to produce democratic transitions. Movements have often faded away quickly after initial successes, followed by a return to authoritarian rule and increased repression. In other cases, nonviolent movements have fostered strengthened civil society participation and stable democracies.

This project examines how dissidents can promote democratic transitions and consolidation. Whereas existing research often focuses on whether predetermine factors are conducive to democratization, we emphasize the influence of the choices of actors and their consequences. Dissident movements tend to emphasize the importance of their own strategies, forward planning, and choosing the best tactics to engage civil society in order to secure a transition to democracy.

We develop a framework for how actors and choices in nonviolent dissent shape the prospects for democracy. We distinguish between different stages with distinct strategic challenges in pro-democracy campaigns, including the initial contestation, the removal of the dictator and the more long-term phase in the aftermath of a first challenge. The project will allow us to understand the incentives for actors and different social groups to support peaceful democratic competition, as well as practical questions with regards to the specific tactics that can help secure democracy. We apply a multi-method approach, combining statistical analysis of historical data (including new and more detailed information collected by the project), interviews with activists, experiments, as well as simulation to explore the outcomes of theoretical models. This allows us to assess the causes of observed outcomes and evaluate counterfactual questions such as whether different campaign strategies could have been more effective.


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv; Gudmund Horn Hermansen & Carl Henrik Knutsen (2021) Characterizing and Assessing Temporal Heterogeneity: Introducing a Change Point Framework, with Applications on the Study of Democratization, Political Analysis.
Leon, Gabriel; Toke Aidt & Max Satchell (2021) The Social Dynamics of Collective Action: Evidence from the Diffusion of the Swing Riots, 1830-31, Journal of Politics.
Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede & Luke Abbs (2021) Ticked off, but scared off? Riots and the fate of nonviolent campaigns, Mobilization. DOI: Forthcoming.
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher; Marianne Dahl & Anne Frugé (2020) Introducing the Strategies of Resistance Data Project, Journal of Peace Research 57(3): 482–491.
Dahlum, Sirianne & Tore Wig (2020) Chaos on Campus: Universities and Mass Political Protest, Comparative Political Studies 54(1): 3–32.
Knutsen, Carl Henrik; Vilde Djuve & Tore Wig (2020) Patterns of Regime Breakdown since the French Revolution, Comparative Political Studies 53(6): 923–958.
Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede (2020) Houston, we have a problem: Enhancing academic freedom and transparency in publishing through post-publication debate, Political Studies Review. DOI: 10.1177/1478929919889309.
Dahlum, Sirianne; Carl Henrik Knutsen & Tore Wig (2019) Who Revolts? Empirically Revisiting the Social Origins of Democracy, Journal of Politics. DOI: 10.1086/704699.
Belgioioso, Margherita; Stefano Costalli & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2019) Better the Devil you Know? How Fringe Terrorism can Induce an Advantage for Moderate Nonviolent Campaigns, Terrorism and Political Violence. DOI: 10.1080/09546553.2018.1559836.
Bove, Vincenzo; Mauricio Rivera & Chiara Ruffa (2019) Beyond coups: terrorism and military involvement in politics, European Journal of International Relations. DOI:
Bartusevičius, Henrikas & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2019) A Two-Stage Approach to Civil Conflict: Contested Incompatibilities and Armed Violence, International Organization 73(1): 225–248.
Rød, Espen Geelmuyden; Carl Henrik Knutsen & Håvard Hegre (2019) The determinants of democracy: a sensitivity analysis, Public Choice. DOI: 10.1007/s1112.
Bormann, Nils-Christian; Lars-Erik Cederman; Scott Gates; Benjamin Graham; Simon Hug; Kaare Strøm & Julian Wucherpfennig (2019) Power Sharing: Institutions, Behavior, and Peace, American Journal of Political Science 63(1): 84–100.


Pinckney, Jonathan (2020) From Dissent to Democracy: The Promise and Perils of Civil Resistance Transitions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Book Chapter

Gleditsch, Kristian Skrede (2020) Advances in Data on Conflict and Dissent, in Deutschmann, Emanuel; Jan Lorenz; Luis G. Nardin; Davide Natalini; & Adalbert F.X. Wilhelm, eds, Computational Conflict Research. New York: Springer (23–41).

Popular Article

Wig, Tore (2020) Det vil bli blodig [It Will Be Bloody], Agenda Magasin, 25 March.
Wig, Tore; Sirianne Dahlum & Carl Henrik Knutsen (2020) Erna som diktator [Erna as Dictator], VG, 25 March.
Djuve, Vilde; Carl Henrik Knutsen & Tore Wig (2020) Are we on the cusp of a global wave of regime change?, Political Violence at a Glance, 6 February.
Dahl, Marianne; Tora Sagård; Haakon Gjerløw & Bintu Zahara Sakor (2019) Twitterrevolusjonens vekst og fall [The Rise and Fall of the Twitter Revolution], Aftenposten, 8 December.
Djuve, Vilde; Carl Henrik Knutsen & Tore Wig (2019) Ingen regimer varer evig, VG, 18 November.
Dahlum, Sirianne; Carl Henrik Knutsen & Tore Wig (2019) We checked 100 years of protests in 150 countries. Here’s what we learned about the working class and democracy., The Washington Post's Monkey Cage, 24 October.
Wig, Tore (2019) Demokrati kommer nedenfra, Klassekampen, 8 August.
Leon, Gabriel; Scott Gates & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2019) Maduro Has Nowhere to Go, Political Violence @ a Glance, 8 February.

Conference Paper

Dahl, Marianne & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2019) Not a one way street: Coups d'état, civil society mobilization and democratization, presented at State-Citizen Interactions during and after Violence, University College London, 29th – 30th of May.


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