Marta Bivand Erdal

Senior Researcher

Marta Bivand Erdal
Email: marta@prio.org
Work phone: +47 22 54 77 91
Mobile phone: +47 452 17 648
Twitter: @bivanderdal

Research Interests

My research focuses on migrant transnationalism, including remittances and diaspora engagements; on processes of migrant integration, including citizenship practices in diverse contexts; and on return migration and sustained transnational mobilities.

Through these research interests I also explore intersecting themes, such as the interactions of migrant transnationalism and integration, questions of dual belonging and ambvialence, and the roles of religion in diaspora development engagements, and for migrant integration processes.

I have conducted research in Norway, Poland and in South Asia, and currently combine research on migration and transnational practices, with research focusing on different aspects of living together in culturally and religiously diverse societies. 

My research is mainly based on qualitative research methods, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups as data collection tools. While my focus is primarily on the experiences and reflections of individual actors, I am also interested in the interplay of structure and agency, which largely shapes the opportunities and environments that both individuals and policy makers can act upon.

Background

​Personal profiles on other sites:

Academia.edu

ResearchGate

Languages spoken:

Proficient: English, Norwegian, Polish.                                                              

Working experience:

2012- Senior Researcher, PRIO
2007-2012: Researcher, PRIO
2003-2007: Children's and youth officer, Association of young catholics in Norway (NUK).

Education:

2012: PhD (Human Geography), University of Oslo
2006: MA (Human Geography), University of Oslo
2002: BA with honours (Geography), University College London, University of London

Research Groups

Full member:
Associated member:

PRIO Departments

Current
Historical

PRIO Projects

Ongoing:
Finished:

Events

PRIO started tracking events online in 2007. This listing is not complete. Past events may be mentioned in our news archive.

Publications

Recent publications

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) Juxtaposing Pakistani diaspora policy with migrants’ transnational citizenship practices, Geoforum 76: 1–10.
Bygnes, Susanne & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Liquid migration, grounded lives: considerations about future mobility and settlement among Polish and Spanish migrants in Norway, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2016.1211004 .
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kaja Borchgrevink (2016) Transnational Islamic charity as everyday rituals, Global Networks. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12137.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Mette Strømsø (2016) Norskhet i flertall [Plural Norwegianness], PRIO Policy Brief, 14. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) Hverdagsintegrering for norskfødte [Everyday integration for the 'Norwegian-born'], Dagbladet.

All publications

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) Juxtaposing Pakistani diaspora policy with migrants’ transnational citizenship practices, Geoforum 76: 1–10.
Bygnes, Susanne & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Liquid migration, grounded lives: considerations about future mobility and settlement among Polish and Spanish migrants in Norway, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2016.1211004 .
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kaja Borchgrevink (2016) Transnational Islamic charity as everyday rituals, Global Networks. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12137.
Bolognani, Marta & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Return Imaginaries and Political Climate: Comparing Thinking About Return Mobilities Among Pakistani Origin Migrants and Descendants in Norway and the UK, Journal of International Migration and Integration. DOI: 10.1007/s12134-016-0470-4: 1–15.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Aleksandra Lewicki (2016) Moving citizens: Citizenship practices among Polish migrants in Norway and the United Kingdom, Social Identities 22(1): 112–128.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Anum Amjad; Qamar Bodla & Asma Rubab (2015) Going back to Pakistan for education? The interplay of return mobilities, education and transnational living, Population, Space and Place. DOI: 10.1002/psp.1966.
Abdin, Zain Ul & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Remittance-sending among Pakistani taxi-drivers in Barcelona and Oslo: Implications of migration-trajectories and the protracted electricity crisis in Pakistan, Migration and Development. DOI: 10.1080/21632324.2015.1081334.
Bell, Justyna & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Limited but enduring transnational ties? Transnational family life among Polish migrants in Norway, Polish Diaspora Review (Studia Migracyjne – Przegląd Polonijny) 157(3): 77–98.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) 'Where are you from' or 'when did you come'? Temporal dimensions in migrants' reflections about settlement and return, Ethnic and Racial Studies 38(7): 1202–1217.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) 'This is my home' Pakistani and Polish Migrants’ Return Considerations as Articulations About ‘Home’, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 361–384.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) Praca i rodzina: Rozważania o powrocie wśród Polaków mieszkających w Norwegii [Work and Family: Return considerations among Polish migrants living in Norway], Studia Migracyjne-Przegląd Polonijny(2): 41–64.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Beyond the insider–outsider divide in migration research, Migration Studies 2(1): 36–54.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2013) Migrant Transnationalism and Multi-Layered Integration: Norwegian-Pakistani Migrants’ Own Reflections, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 983–999.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Ceri Oeppen (2013) Migrant Balancing Acts: Understanding the Interactions Between Integration and Transnationalism, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 867–884.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Who is the money for? Remittances within and beyond the household in Pakistan, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 21(4): 437–458.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) 'A Place to Stay in Pakistan': Why Migrants Build Houses in their Country of Origin, Population, Space and Place 18(5): 629–641.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Cindy Horst (2012) How does Conflict in Migrants’ Country of Origin Affect Remittance-Sending? Financial Priorities and Transnational Obligations Among Somalis and Pakistanis in Norway, International Migration Review 46(2): 283–309.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kristian Stokke (2009) Contributing to Development? Transnational Activities among Tamils in Norway, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 18(3): 397–418.

PhD Thesis

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Transnational ties and belonging: Remittances from Pakistani migrants in Norway. PhD thesis, Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.

Book Chapter

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) The diaspora meets the ‘development industry’: Engaging Norwegian-Pakistanis in development back home, in Tan, Y.T.; & M. Rahman, eds, International Migration and Development In South Asia. Abingdon: Routledge (44–60).
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) The social dynamics of remittance-receiving in Pakistan: Agency and opportunity among non-migrants in a transnational social field, in Migrant Remittances In South Asia Social, Economic and Political Implications. London: Palgrave Macmillan (115–134).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Ezzati (2013) Når ute også er hjemme. Migrasjon og utenrikspolitikk, in Weltzien, Åsmund; & Odd Mølster, eds, Norge Og Det Nye Verdenskartet. Oslo: Cappelen Damm (58–79).

Non-refereed Journal Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand & Aleksandra Lewicki (2016) Polish migration within Europe: mobility, transnationalism and integration , Social Identities 22(1): 1–9.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Return Migration and Transnationalism: How Are the Two Connected?, International Migration 52(6): 2–12.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) Transnationalism in a Comparative Perspective: An Introduction, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 255–260.

Popular Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) Hverdagsintegrering for norskfødte [Everyday integration for the 'Norwegian-born'], Dagbladet.
Sagmo, Tove Heggli ; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Innvandringsdebatt på feil premisser [Wrong premises for the debate about immigration into Europe], NRK Ytring.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Muslimer flest feirer id [Most Muslims Celebrate Eid], Dagbladet.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) Når foreldre frykter staten [When parents fear the state], Vårt Land.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Når blir du norsk? [When do you become Norwegian?], Aftenposten.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Evig innvandrer, aldri norsk [Eternal immigrant, never Norwegian], Bergens Tidende.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Norske fremmedhjelpere [Foreign helpers], NRK Ytring.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2014) Avleggs statsborgerskapslov [Outdated citizenship legislation], Dagens Næringsliv.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Muslimsk dugnad for de fattige [Muslim charity for the poor], VG.
Talleraas, Cathrine & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Stillheten om retur til Etiopia [The silence about return to Ethiopia], Ytring.
Ezzati, Rojan & Marta Bivand Erdal (2013) Iscenesetter innvandring som problem [Staging immigration as a problem], VG: : Verdens Gang.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2013) Den usynlige bistanden, Klassekampen.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Ezzati, Rojan (2013) Norge og det nye verdenskartet [Norway and the new world map], Dagsavisen, 22 May.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2013) Mindre norsk med to pass [Less Norwegian with two passports], Ytring.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Tillit til staten [Confidence in the state], Dagbladet, .
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Paasche, Erlend (2011) De etniske brillene må av [Off with the Ethnic Glasses], Bergens Tidende, 5 October.
Erdal, Marta Bivand;Horst, Cindy;Carling, Jørgen; & Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten , 8 November.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Ekskludert fra utvikling? [Excluded from Development?], Dagsavisen, 29 July.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Mohamed Husein Gaas & Cindy Horst (2008) Tvunget til lovbrudd [Forced to Break the Law], Dagbladet, 2 April.

PRIO Report

Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Policy Brief

Erdal, Marta Bivand & Mette Strømsø (2016) Norskhet i flertall [Plural Norwegianness], PRIO Policy Brief, 14. Oslo: PRIO.
Talleraas, Cathrine & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Contestations over National Identity and Diversity, PRIO Policy Brief, 10. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Alder, botid og livsfase: Integrering i et tidsperspektiv [Norwegian version], PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Age, life cycle, and length of stay: temporal perspectives on integration [English version], PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cathrine Talleraas (2015) Becoming One of Us?, PRIO Policy Brief, 11. Oslo: PRIO.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Other Voices, Other Choices?, PRIO Policy Brief, 15. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kaja Borchgrevink (2015) Diaspora Development Engagements Seen Through the Prism of Islamic Charity, PRIO Policy Brief, 16. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) How Polish Migrants in Norway Consider Return Migration, PRIO Policy Brief, 12. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) Pakistan as a Return Migration Destination, PRIO Policy Brief, 13. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Engaging Diasporas in Development. A Review of Pilot Project Pakistan, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bolognani; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Ceri Oeppen; Erlend Paasche; Silje Vatne Pettersen; & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Possibilities and Realities of Return MigrationOslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Alice Ennals; Kari Helene Partapouli; & Nadia Falch Bandak, eds, (2015) Diaspora og Utvikling [Diaspora and Development]Oslo: Development Fund.

Book Review

Vargas-Silva, Carlos (2013) Review of Review of Marta Bivand Erdal, ed., Handbook of Research Methods in Migration, in International Migration Review 47(2): 474–475.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Review of The Political Economy of Global Remittances: Gender, Governmentality and Neoliberalism, in Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30: 753–.

Blog Posts

Negotiating Collective Identities

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Thursday, 21 July 2016

The 22 July attacks, now five years ago, bore horrific testimony to what an ideology of exclusion and hatred, at the hands of one man, can do. Whilst the terror was of such a scope that the moment called for a unified response, ideological cleavages along the Eurabia, anti-Islam, and anti-immigration lines soon re-emerged in public debate and on social media. Meanwhile, the conundrum of how collective identities and shared understandings of who ‘we’ are as a democratic society, post-22 July, remains. The reality of our multicultural, diverse society is lived on an everyday basis, though unequally distributed, across the ...

A Post-Brexit We?

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 4 July 2016

Who is the ‘we’ in the context of the Brexit vote? Whilst the protection of British borders was a key ingredient in Brexit debates, the answer to what kind of a community we are talking about within those borders, remains in desperate need of addressing. Lingering notions of cultural purity cannot stand unchallenged. Which community, which sense of ‘we’, was the subject of the battle in Brexit? Brexit was won on immigration, or more accurately on ‘the topic of immigration’. Arguably, it was won on the basis of a particular conception of ‘us’ set up against a variety of ‘thems’, ...

Pakistan’s Crippling Energy Crisis and Increasing Remittances

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Zain Ul Abdin on Thursday, 1 October 2015

Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems. This summer CNBC run a report titled Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems after more than a thousand people died during heatwaves during the first days of Ramadan. Insufficient preparedness for the heatwave is largely seen as the cause of deaths, yet the context of the protracted electricity crisis in Pakistan is also widely connected with the scale of deaths and hospitalization during this summer’s heatwave. Pakistan’s energy crisis has worsened over the past few years, with increasing gaps between electricity supply and demand in the country. The crisis has been reported on in ...

Return Migration: Pakistan as a Return Migration Destination

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 24 August 2015

Return migration to Pakistan is diverse. It ranges from return mobilities of naturalized citizens and those born abroad to so-called ‘voluntary assisted returns’ and deportations of migrants without regular status. Pakistan receives returnees from the Middle East, as well as from Europe and North America, which reflects broader Pakistani migration patterns. This policy brief explores the multiplicity of return migration to Pakistan. From a return destination perspective, it presents some of the dilemmas faced when governing return migration. Return migration to Pakistan is extremely diverse; legal status and citizenship are important distinctions among returnees. Pakistanis abroad account for about 4 ...

Return Migration: Polish Migrants to Norway

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 24 August 2015

How do Polish Migrants in Norway Consider Return Migration?  After Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 and the substantial emigration that followed, return migration was an expectation widely shared by observers in Poland and abroad. Return migration has been modest, however, even in the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crisis. Due to the post-accession migration wave, Poles comprise the largest immigrant group in Norway. Although Polish migrants in Norway were also expected to stay for short periods of time, they are for the most part not returning to Poland. This Policy Brief explores why, presenting five common perspectives ...

Becoming One of Us: The Politics of Citizenship in France, Norway and the UK

Posted by Cathrine Talleraas & Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 5 August 2015

Citizenship and naturalization legislation in France, Norway, and the UK has changed substantially more during the 2000s than in previous decades. In which areas of citizenship policy have changes occurred? And how do these changes relate to the trend of reinvigorating the citizenship institution to increase social cohesion? This blog post is an exerpt from a Policy Brief from the research project ‘Negotiating the nation: Implications of ethnic and religious diversity for national identity’ (NATION). Citizenship legislation in France, Norway, and the UK has changed more in the 2000s than previously. Countering terrrorism and striving for social cohesion are two ...

Contestations over National Identity and Diversity: An analysis of French and British media debates in the autumn 2014

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Cathrine Talleraas on Tuesday, 28 July 2015

How and when is national identity and nationhood debated, and what does this reveal about the boundaries of national identity? Drawing on analyses of opinion pieces from French and British newspapers, we examine how national identity is debated, contested and challenged in light of national and international news events during the autumn of 2014. This blog post is based on a Policy Brief from the research project ‘Negotiating the nation: Implications of ethnic and religious diversity for national identity’ (NATION). National identity is an embedded theme in public debates, spurred by events and societal change, but also often abstract and ...

Most Muslims Celebrate Eid

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Thursday, 16 July 2015

Now that Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting, is ending, most Muslims – in Oslo, as elsewhere in the world – celebrate the festival of Eid. It is a time for celebration. For many Muslims, it is also a time to help those less well-off than themselves, either through the annual “religious tax” zakat or through other forms of charity. Muslims in Oslo are engaged in a range of charitable, humanitarian and development efforts. We have learned about these through our research over the past four years, exploring development involvement in Pakistan and beyond, among the Pakistani diaspora. However, charitable ...

Equality in North-South Research Collaboration

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal, Anum Amjad, Qamar Zaman Bodla & Asma Rubab on Thursday, 2 July 2015

Research collaboration across Global South-North divides is an articulated aim in many academic institutions. In this blog we point to the value added, as well as some of the challenges of such collaboration, based on our experiences from collaborative research on migration and transnationalism in Pakistan and Norway. We are writing this blog post as our co-authored article appears on ‘early view’ ahead of publication in the journal Population, Space and Place. Our article is the result of longstanding collaboration between us, as young researchers. In this blog post we reflect on our experience of research collaboration, and the challenges ...

The Child Welfare Services in Norway and Migration

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 17 June 2015

The recent demonstrations against Norway’s Child Welfare Service (Barnevernet), in Oslo and outside Norwegian embassies abroad, express the deep frustration and fear felt by some parents with immigrant background. In recent years this frustration has received increased attention both in Norway and internationally. The international diplomatic repercussions of this crisis of confidence between the Child Welfare Service and families with immigrant background reveal how this is not purely a domestic matter, although it concerns children in Norway. Frode Forfang, director general of the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration, is concerned about the involvement of the Child Welfare Service with asylum seekers, ...

On becoming Norwegian

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Thursday, 28 May 2015

In May 2015, one of Norway’s leading daily newspapers, Aftenposten, launched a series of profiles titled #JegErNorsk (#IAmNorwegian). One is of Slavomir, who has made his everyday life easier by changing his name to Stian. Another is of Tara, who feels at her least Norwegian on Norway’s national day, when – with her immigrant background and lack of the traditional Norwegian costume – she senses that other people do not see her as Norwegian. Finally there is Aon, who is frustrated about depictions in the Norwegian media of immigrants and Muslims. Each of these young people, in his or her ...

Always an Immigrant, Never Norwegian

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Wednesday, 4 February 2015

Immigrants have become integrated into Norwegian society with degrees of success that range between two possible extremes: strong attachment and total alienation. In debates about integration, ethnicity and country of origin are often claimed to be the key factors for determining whether or not integration will be successful. Other important factors are seen as secondary. This contributes to the one-track nature of debates about integration. The significance of time Politicians, the media and researchers tend to focus on where a person “is from”. But in our research on migration – including in particular the relative strength of an immigrant’s sense ...

Foreign Helpers

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Friday, 19 December 2014

While a small number of young Norwegian Muslims have travelled to Syria to join militant groups as “foreign fighters”, far greater numbers of young Muslims are supporting humanitarian efforts. Most media attention is focused on young people travelling abroad to fight, rather than on young people’s humanitarian work. Throughout the autumn, aid organizations and groups of individuals have been collecting winter clothing, footwear, sleeping bags and blankets. With winter closing in, the situation is precarious and there is great enthusiasm for collecting clothes and blankets to send to civilians both in Syria itself and in refugee camps in the region. ...

Where is My Home?

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Friday, 5 December 2014

Considerations about return are a persistent dimension of identity work in migrant populations. The question of where and what constitutes ‘home’ for migrants is central to understanding processes of integration in settlement contexts. Simultaneously, where and what constitutes ‘home’ sheds light on motivations for sustained transnational ties, but also on return considerations, ranging from planning and actually returning, to an ongoing myth of future return, or a decision of staying put. Reflections about ‘home’ are indicative of individuals’ senses of belonging. Migrants reflections about the possibility of return migration are revealing of where and how these individuals locate ‘home’ in ...

Norway's Outdated Citizenship Legislation

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Tove Heggli Sagmo on Monday, 20 October 2014

The war in Syria, the threat of Islamic radicalisation, and fears that terrorists may recruit Norwegian citizens have sparked renewed debate about Norway’s citizenship legislation. Meanwhile, another debate continues to be forgotten: We call for a reopening of the debate on dual citizenship, as Norway’s antiquated legislation is out of step with that of its Nordic neighbours. Both debates are important, and both should be addressed now. But these are two separate debates. A U-turn in Denmark This summer Denmark decided to permit dual citizenship. This means that Norway is the only Nordic country to persist in banning it. A ...

Muslim Charity for the Poor

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 28 July 2014

Fasting and celebration At this time Muslims all over the world are celebrating Eid – Islam’s most important religious festival. Eid marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. After the Eid prayer, families and friends gather to celebrate. This is a time for dressing in fine clothing, eating well, and giving gifts to children. In fact, it is not unlike Christmas. During Eid, it is customary for everyone who can afford it to donate a sum of money, zakat-al-fitr, so that the poor will also be able to eat their fill during the festival. These donations are often ...

Invisible Aid

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Kaja Borchgrevink on Friday, 4 July 2014

Muslims pay 15 times more “religious tax” than the rest of the world gives in humanitarian aid. Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, has just started. A time of fasting for devout Muslims, this is also the time of year when most Muslims pay their annual zakat. Zakat is a form of compulsory almsgiving, a kind of “religious tax.” The amount due is 2.5 per cent of a Muslim’s wealth at the start of Ramadan, subject to a minimum threshold. The Koran contains clear rules about who is eligible to receive zakat: in general, these are people who ...

Unintended Effects of Norway’s Readmission Agreement with Ethiopia

Posted by Cathrine Talleraas & Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 18 June 2014

The main purpose of migration policy is to affect migration flows. Sometimes, however, policies have other, unintended effects. Such consequences are easily overlooked in policy evaluations, which usually focus on the effectiveness of a given policy in terms of its intended aim. This Policy Brief analyses the outcome of Norway’s readmission agreement with Ethiopia. Two years after the signing of that agreement, it is clear that its various effects provide a new avenue for reflecting on migration policies in general, and on readmission agreements in particular. Read more in today’s Op Ed (in Norwegian), published at Ytring.no: Stillheten om retur ...

Public Trust in the State

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Saturday, 22 December 2012

For a society such as the Norwegian one, public trust in the state is a cornerstone. But what happens when that trust is lacking? In several cases over the past year (2012), the involvement of Norway’s Child Protection Service (“Barnevernet”) with families of immigrant background has been the subject of heated debate. The rights and wrongs of Barnevernet’s actions in individual cases are impossible for the general public to evaluate on the basis of media reports. For very good reasons, Barnevernet is subject to a duty of confidentiality in the child’s best interests. Despite an intense desire for more information, ...

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