Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

Research Professor

Kristin Bergtora Sandvik
Email: bergtora@prio.org
Work phone: 22 54 77 92

Research Interests

What I am doing at the moment: Summer and Fall 2016
My main affiliation is now with the University of Oslo, but my research interests remain the same. Within our newest project, "Aid in Crisis? Rights-Based Approaches and Humanitarian Outcomes", I am conducting interviews with Norwegian humanitarian actors, and developing a paper on the Political Sociology of Humanitarianism together with Kjersti Lohne (UiO). Together with CMI and NUPI, our team at PRIO is currently wrapping up the "Protection of Civilians: From Principle to Practice" project. Over the coming months, I will continue my collaboration with Julieta Lemaitre at Universidad de Los Andes (Colombia) on transitional justice and legal mobilization in violent context and continue my work on soft law, humanitarian technology and refugee resettlement. I will also be the coordinator for the Humanitarianism research group at PRIO.

 

The Political Sociology of Humanitarianism

§ The Law of Humanitarian Action

§ Soft Law and Rules of Engagement (RoE)

§ Legal Mobilization in Violent Context

§ Feminist Legal Studies

§ Transitional Justice

 

Emergent Military and Humanitarian Technology

§ Regulation of Drones and Robotics

§ Cybersecurity and the Ethics of Big Data

 

Forced Displacement

§ UNHCR

§Accountability in Refugee Management

§ Resettlement

§ IDP's in Colombia

Background

Personal profiles on other sites
LinkedIn
Academia.edu
Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies 

 

Work experience
2009-: Senior Researcher, PRIO.
2016-: Coordinator, Humanitarianism Research Group, PRIO.
2016-: Associate Professor, Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law, University of Oslo.
2012-2016: Director for the Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies.
 
 
 Education
§ Doctor of Juridical Sciences, S.J.D Harvard Law School 2008
§ Visiting Fellowship, RSC, University of Oxford 2006
§ Visiting Researcher,  Refugee Law Project, Uganda 2005
§ Candidata Juris, Masters in Women's Law, University of Oslo 2002 
 
 
I am a board member of the International Humanitarian Studies association, a deputy board member at NORAGRIC and an editorial board member of Security Dialogue
 

Events

PRIO started tracking events online in 2007. This listing is not complete. Past events may be mentioned in our news archive.

Publications

 

Recent publications

Lidén, Kristoffer & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Poison Pill or Cure-All: Drones and the Protection of Civilians, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, The Good Drone. London: Ashgate. London: Ashgate .

All publications

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kristian Hoelscher (2017) The Reframing of the War on Drugs as a “Humanitarian Crisis”: Costs, Benefits and Attendant Consequences, Latin American Perspectives (Forthcoming).
Cezne, Eric; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Drones como Veículos para a Ação Humanitária: Perspectivas, Oportunidades e Desafios [[Drones as vehicles for humanitarian action: perspectives, opportunities and challenges]], Conjuntura Austral 7(3334): 45–60.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The humanitarian cyberspace: shrinking space or an expanding frontier?, Third World Quarterly 37(1): 17–32.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) African Drone Stories, BEHEMOTH a Journal on Civilisation 8(2): 73–96.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert (2015) Les drones humanitaires [Humanitarian drones], RIS La Revue Internationale Et Strategique 98(2): 139–146.
Lemaitre, Julieta & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2015) Shifting Frames, Vanishing Resources, and Dangerous Political Opportunities: Legal Mobilization among Displaced Women in Colombia, Law & Society Review 49(1): 5–38.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2014) Beyond Sexual Violence in Transitional Justice: Political Insecurity as a Gendered Harm, Feminist Legal Studies 22(3).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert; John Karlsrud & Mareile Kaufmann (2014) Humanitarian technology: a critical research agenda, International Review of the Red Cross. DOI: 10.1017/S1816383114000344.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kjersti Lohne (2014) The Rise of the Humanitarian Drone: Giving Content to an Emerging Concept, Millennium Journal of International Studies. DOI: 10.1177/03058298145294701–20.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & John Karlsrud (2014) Ny humanitær teknologi - en kritisk forskningsagenda, Internasjonal Politikk(2): 224–233.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2014) Teknologi og det humanitære fornyelsesprosjektet [Technology and the Humanitarian Renewal Project], Internasjonal Politikk(2): 272–281.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2014) Regulating War in the Shadow of Law: Toward a Re-Articulation of ROE, Journal of Military Ethics 13(2): 118–136.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2013) Internally Displaced Women as Knowledge Producers and Users in Humanitarian Action: The View from Colombia, Disasters 37(1): 36–50.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Hans-Inge Giske Langø (2013) Cyberspace og sikkerhet, Internasjonal Politikk 71(2): 221–228.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Cyberkrig og internasjonal rett, Internasjonal Politikk 71(2): 252–262.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) The Politics and Possibilities of Victim Making in International Law/As Políticas e Possibilidades da “Construção de Vítimas” no Direito Internacional , Revista Da Faculdade De Direito Do Sul De Minas 27(2): .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Negotiating the Humanitarian Past: History, Memory, and Unstable Cityscapes in Kampala, Uganda, Refugee Survey Quarterly 31(1): 108–122.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2011) Blurring Boundaries: Refugee Resettlement in Kampala—between the Formal, the Informal, and the Illegal, Polar: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 34(1): 11–32.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2010) Unpacking World Refugee Day: Humanitarian Governance and Human Rights Practice? , Journal of Human Rights Practice 2(2): 287–298.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2010) Hva teller som transnasjonal kunnskap? Mistenksomhet, sladder og rykter i møter mellom urbane flyktninger og UNHCR-byråkrater [What Counts as Transnational Knowledge? Suspicion, Gossip and Rumor in Refugee Management] , Norsk Antropologisk Tidsskrift 21(1): 19–31.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2010) A Legal History: the Emergence of the African Resettlement Candidate in International Refugee Management , International Journal of Refugee Law 22(1): 20–47.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2009) Flyktningkvinnen som rettslig aktør: Marginalisering og rettsbevisshet i Kampala, Uganda [Refugee Woman at Risk: Marginalization and Legal Consciousness in Kampala, Uganda], Retfærd 32(3): 78–95.

Book Chapter

Lidén, Kristoffer & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Poison Pill or Cure-All: Drones and the Protection of Civilians, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, The Good Drone. London: Ashgate. London: Ashgate .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Public Order Drone: Promises, Proliferation and Disorder in Civil Airspace, in The Good Drone. London: Ashgate .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) How accountability technologies shape international protection: results-based management and rights-based approaches revisited , in Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, ed., UNHCR and the Struggle For Accountability, Technology, Law and Results-Based Management. London: Routledge Humanitarian Studies .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) Law in the militarization of cyber space: framing a critical research agenda , in Friis, Karsten; & Jens Ringsmose, eds, Conflict In Cyber Space Theoretical, Strategic and Legal Perspectives. Abingdon, OXON: Routledge .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) Introduction: The Quest for an Accountability Cure , in Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, ed., UNHCR and the Struggle For Accountability, Technology, Law and Results-Based Management. London: Routledge Humanitarian Studies .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Political and Moral Economies of Dual Technology Transfers: Arming Police Drones, in Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems. Berlin: Springer International Publishing .
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Introduction: What Does It Take to Be Good?, in The Good Drone. London: Ashgate .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) Stronger, Faster, Better: Three Logics of Humanitarian Futureproofing , in Heins, Volker; Kai Koddenbrock; & Christine Unrau, eds, Humanitarianism and Challenges of Cooperation. London: Routledge .
Lemaitre, Julieta & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Structural Remedies and the One-million Pesos: on the Limits of Court-ordered Social Change for Internally Displaced Women in Colombia, in The Public Law of Gender from the Local to the Global. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2015) From IDPs to Victims in Colombia: A Bottom-Up Reading of Law in Post-Conflict Transitions, in Saul, Matthew; & James A. Sweeney, eds, International Law and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Policy. London and New York: Routledge (251–271).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Rights-Based Humanitarianism as Emancipation or Stratification? Rumors and Procedures of Verification in Urban Refugee Management in Kampala, Uganda , in Derman, Bill; Anne Hellum; & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, eds, Worlds of Human Rights. the Ambiguities of Rights Claiming In Africa. Leiden: Brill .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) The Risks of Technological Innovation, in World's Disaster Report (2013) Technology and the Future of Humanitarian Action. Geneva: IFRC .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) The Multiple Tracks of Human Rights and Humanitarianism , in Derman, Bill;Hellum, Anne; & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora, eds, Worlds of Human Rights. the Ambiguities of Rights Claiming In Africa. Brill.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Ethnographic and Historical Perspectives on Rights Claiming on the African Continent, in Derman, Bill;Hellum, Anne; & Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora, eds, Worlds of Human Rights, the Ambiguities of Rights Claiming In Africa. Brill.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora(2010) Rapprochement and Misrecognition: Humanitarianism as Human Rights Practice The New International Law. : (139–157).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora(2010) Framing Accountability in Refugee Resettlement Accountability For Human Rights Violations of International Organisations. : (287–310).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora(2010) International Law and Security The Routledge Handbook of New Security Studies. : (110–120).
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora(2009) The physicality of legal consciousness: suffering and the production of credibility in refugee resettlement Humanitarianism and Suffering the Mobilization of Empathy (Wilson & Brown Eds). : Cambridge University Press.

Edited Volume

Garnier, Adèle ; Liliana Lyra Jubilut ; & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, eds, (2017) Refugee Resettlement: Power, Politics and Humanitarian Governance. New York: Berghahn.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Katja Lindskov Jacobsen, eds, (2016) UNHCR and the Struggle for Accountability Technology, law and results-based management. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. Routledge Humanitarian Studies.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, (2016) The Good Drone. London: Ashgate.
Derman, Bill; Anne Hellum; & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, eds, (2013) Worlds of Human Rights: The Ambiguities of Rights Claiming in Africa. Leiden-Boston: Brill. Afrika-Studiecentrum Series.

Popular Article

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) Futureproofing humanitarianism for permanent emergencies: unpacking the promise of cooperation, A Quest For Humanitarian Effectiveness.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kristian Hoelscher (2016) Is The War on Drugs a Humanitarian Crisis?, ATHA.SE.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) New Developments in Drone Proliferation: How Africa was Deployed to Rescue Drones, by Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, Mats Utas.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Refugee Crisis as a Global Humanitarian Challenge, European Council of Foreign Relations.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) An academic New Year’s resolution for Colombia: understanding continued gendered violence as a threat to positive peace, Intlawgrrls.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2015) From IDPs to Victims in Colombia: Transition from Humanitarian Crisis through Law Reform?, Reliefweb.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kjersti Lohne (2015) What's wrong with the idea that 'robots don't rape'?, Open Democracy.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kjersti Lohne (2015) Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Killing the ‘Robots-don’t-Rape’ Argument, Intlawgrrls.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Julieta Lemaitre (2015) Beyond Sexual Violence: Gendered Political Insecurity as a Threat to Peace, Intlawgrrls.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Evaluating Ebola: the politics of the military response narrative, EISF.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Conundrums in the Embrace of the Private Sector, ATHA.SE.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen; John Karlsrud & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2014) Bedre nødhjelp [Better aid], Dagens Næringsliv.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; John Karlsrud & Chris Wilson (2014) A Humanitarian Technology Policy Agenda for 2016, ATHA.SE the Advanced Training Program on Humanitarian Action.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maral Mirshahi & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Killer robots – hvorfor ønsker man et forbud? [Killer Robots - The Quest for a Ban], NRK Ytring.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Issues for the International Community, Security & Defence Agenda.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Nicholas Marsh & Maral Mirshahi (2014) The Struggle to Ban Killer Robots, Bullentin of Atomic Scientists.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & John Karlsrud (2014) Blir humanitære organisasjoner de nye overvåkerne? [Will Humanitarian Organizations Become the New Surveillance Monitors?], Bistandsaktuelt.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen; John Karlsrud & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2013) Vil aggressive fredsoperasjoner løse Malis humanitære krise? [Will Aggressive Peace Operations Solve the Humanitarian Crisis in Mali?], Bistandsaktuelt.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Fra ubemannede fly til drapsroboter, NRK Ytring, 27 May.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Lohne, Kjersti (2013) The promise and perils of ‘disaster drones’, Humanitarian Exchange Magazine 58.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Fra ubemannede fly til drapsroboter [From UAVs to killer robots].
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Droner truer demokratiet, Klassekampen, .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2011) Morgendagens Kriger [Tomorrow's Wars], Aftenposten, 20 June.

PRIO Report

Lemaitre, Julieta; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; & Juliana Vargas Gómez (2014) Organización comunitaria y derechos humanos. La movilización legal de las mujeres desplazadas en Colombia. [Community organization and human rights. Legal mobilization of displaced women in Colombia.], PRIO Report, 10. Colombia: Universidad De Los Andes (Justica Global).
Lemaitre, Julieta; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; Eva Sol López; Juan Pablo Mosquera; Juliana Vargas Gómez; & Patricia Guerrero (2014) Sueño de vida digna” La Liga de Mujeres Desplazadas: Estudio de caso en mejores prácticas de organización de base para el goce efectivo de derechos. [Dream about a decent life. The League of Displaced Women: A Case Study of best practices organization based on the full enjoyment of rights], PRIO Report, 7. Colombia: Universidad De Los Andes (Justica Global).
Lemaitre, Julieta; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; Luz Estella Romero Villalba; Ana Manuela Ochoa Arias; Valentina González Villegas; & Sandra Vargas Mahecha (2014) Defensoras de derechos humanos Tres estudios de casos de ONG y su respuesta al desplazamiento forzado [Human rights defenders, Three studies of NGO's and response to forced displacement], PRIO Report, 9. Colombia: Universidad De Los Andes (Justica Global).
Lemaitre, Julieta; Eva Sol López; Juan Pablo Mosquera; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik; & Juliana Vargas Gómez (2014) De desplazados a víctimas. Los cambios legales y la participación de la Mesa de Víctimas de Mocoa, Putumayo. [Displaced victims. Legal changes and involvement of the Bureau of Victims of Mocoa, Putumayo.], PRIO Report, 8. Colombia: Universidad De Los Andes (Justica Global).

Conference Paper

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) ‘Now Is the Time to Deliver’: Understanding Humanitarian Innovation as Buzzword , presented at The World Conference on Humanitarian Studies on Changing Crises and the Quest for Adequate Solutions, Addis Ababa, 05/03/2016.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The refugee crisis: a common challenge?, presented at Europe, China and the UN in an Age of Crises, Peking University, 14.01.2016–15.01.2016.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Humanitarian Drones?, presented at MSF (Doctors Without Borders) Brussels, Brussels, 27 May 2015.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Resettlement comments Alexander Betts, presented at Resettlement, Regional Solutions and Humanitarian Assistance, Oslo, 12 June 2015.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Actors, agendas and legal categories in post-war Colombia. Armed Non State Actors and Access to Health in Armed Conflict, presented at Armed Non State Actors and Access to Health in Armed Conflict, Oslo, 12.02.2015.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Drones for Humanitarian «Interventions», presented at Drones: From Technology to Policy, Security to Ethics, Zürich, 30.01.2015.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) From IDPs to victims in Colombia: Reflections on durable solutions in the post-conflict setting, presented at From beneficiaries to actors: Exploring displaced persons’ roles in resolution processes, McGill University, 14.12.2015–15.12.2015.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) Humanitarian Cyberspace: Expanding Frontiers or Shrinking Space? , presented at Virtual Zones of Peace and Conflict, Copenhagen, 13.01.2015.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Astri Suhrke (2013) The Future of Armed Drones- How to Protect Civilians, presented at Breakfast Seminar, Bergen, 16/05/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Drone Pilots, Humanitarians and the Videogame Analogy: Unpacking the ConversationTrondheim, 5–7 February.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Fra dronekrig til UAV i det sivile luftrom - Globale trender og utfordringer Luftfartskonferansen 2013, Bodø.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Relief and Disaster Drones: Commercial Logic as Humanitarian Logic?Ljubliana, Slovenia.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) The Birth of the Humanitarian Combat Drone: A Preliminary Typology, presented at An Open World: Niels Bohr Conference 2013, Copenhagen, 04.12.13 – 06.12.13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Armed Humanitarian Drones? Paradoxes and Pitfalls, presented at The Future of Warfare, Oslo, 01/11/13 – 02/11/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Breakfast Seminar: Return to Somalia: A New Era?, presented at Breakfast Seminar: Return to Somalia: A New Era?, Oslo, 21/03/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Internally Displaced Women and Legal Mobilization_The Politics of Seeking “Protection” from the Colombian Constitutional Court and IACHR, presented at MULTIRIGHTS, Oslo, 15/01/13 – 15/01/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Panel Challenges in Humanitarian Innovation: Emerging Risks to the Principled and Secure Use of Information in Humanitarian Response -, presented at The World Conference on Humanitarian Studies, Istanbul, 24/10/13 – 27/10/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Righteous trajectory: From Killer Drone to Disaster Drone Pilot, presented at The World Conference on Humanitarian Studies, Istanbul, 24/10/13 – 27/10/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) ‘Unblocking Colombia: the Practice and Politics of lifting bans’, presented at The Politics of the List: Law, Security, Technology, Canterbury, 31/10/13 – 01/11/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) UNHCR Reforms Revisited: Rights-based versus Results-based, presented at The World Conference on Humanitarian Studies, Istanbul, 24/10/13 – 27/10/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Mareile Kaufmann; Kjersti Lohne; & John Karlsrud (2013) Big data, data protection and humanitarian decision making: challenges to accountability and transparency, presented at Disaster Drones: Promises and Pitfalls for Humanitarian Action, Oslo, 22/04/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) “Now the Law Says You Are a Victim”: From Humanitarian Crisis to Transitional Justice in Colombia, presented at Protection of Civilians (PoC) seminar, Bergen, 04/11/13 – 05/11/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Folkerettslige problemstillinger knyttet til fenomenet. Er miltærmakt svaret? Betyr det noe hvordan stater møter utfordringene?, presented at Frokostmøte: Cyberkrig – hva skjer?, Oslo, 11/04/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Framtidas Krig, presented at Framtidas Krig, Bergen, 16/10/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Autonomous Weapons-, presented at PhD Course: Emerging Military Technologies - New Normative Challenges, Oslo, 13/11/13 – 15/11/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Utenriksministerens sikkerhetspolitiske utvalg-Briefing om droneproblematikken, presented at Utenriksministerens sikkerhetspolitiske utvalg, Oslo, 15/04/13.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Structural Litigation during Ongoing Conflict: The Constitutional Court and Displaced Women’s Organizations in Colombia, presented at Law and Society Association, annual Meeting, Boston, 2 June 2013.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2013Does Legal Mobilization Work in Conflict Zones? A Study of Displaced Women’s Organizations in Colombia, presented at Law and Society Association, annual meeting.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2013Internasjonal rett og militariseringen av cyberspace, presented at Fokus: Cyberspace og sikkerhet.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) The War on Drugs as “Humanitarian Crisis": Examining the Latin American Experience, presented at Seventh Annual Conference of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy, Bogota.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Lohne, Kjersti 2012 Technology Transfers from the Military to the Humanitarian Field: the Rise of the Humanitarian Drone, presented at Humanitarianism: Past, Present, Future, , .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2012 The Courts and the Women: Female IDP Organisations and Human Rights Litigation in Colombia, presented at ‘‘Engendering Governance Workshop’, CIPL Workshop’ 6-8 August, 2012: Connecting International Law with Public Law En/gendering governance: from the local to the global, , .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Lohne, Kjersti 2012 Robot Technology and the Drone Stare: Seeing or Unseeing Humanitarian Suffering?, presented at Political Theatres of Suffering: Humanitarian Politics and Representation of Distant Suffering, , .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2011 The Quest for Credible Resettlement Claims: Navigating Collective Identity and Personal Encounters in Kampala, Uganda, presented at La fabrique institutionnelle de l'asile et de la protection des réfugiés, , .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora;Kaufmann, Mareile; & Lohne, Kjersti 2011 Terror Threats, Data Protection and Human Security: A Shifting Interface in Norwegian Law?, presented at ECPR Conference, , 27 August.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2011 Collaborative Feminist Methodologies - In the Emergency Zone?, presented at The Second World Conference of Humanitarian Studies, , 2–5 June.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2010 Negotiating the Humanitarian Past: Officializing UNHCR Practice in Uganda, presented at The Anthropology of International Institutions: How Ethnography Contributes to Understanding Mechanisms of Global Governance, , 11 June.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2009 The Politics and Possibilities of Victimhood, A Cosmopolitan Perspective, presented at Cosmopolitan Justice and its Discontents Interdisciplinary Conference, , 16 October.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora 2009 The Legitimacy of Humanitarian Governance: On the Relationship between Indicators, Law, and Rights, presented at 2009 Annual Meeting the Law and Society Association (LSA), , 30 May.

PRIO Policy Brief

Fladvad Nielsen, Brita; Kristin Bergtora Sandvik & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert (2016) How Can Innovation Deliver Humanitarian Outcomes?, PRIO Policy Brief, 12. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora & Kristian Hoelscher (2016) Is the War on Drugs a “Humanitarian Crisis”?, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Lemaitre, Julieta & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Tailoring Protection of Civilians to State Capacity, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in the Global Legal Order, PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Cyberwar as an Issue of International law, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Towards a Militarization of Cyberspace-Cyberwar as an Issue of International Law, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - External Series

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2013) Drone Pilots, Humanitarians and the Videogame Analogy: Unpacking the Conversation, UAV – bare ny teknologi eller en ny strategisk virkelighet? Luftkrigsskolens skriftserie volum 29 , 29. Trondheim: Luftkrigsskolen.

Book Review

Donini, Antonio (2013) Review of Review of Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, ed., The Golden Fleece: Manipulation and Independence in Humanitarian Action, in Journal of Peace Research 50(3): 426–427.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora(2009) Review of Global Justice Networks, Geographies of Transnational Solidarity 341–343.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora(2009) Review of Exploiting the Limits of Law 129 – 132.

Blog Posts

Refugee Resettlement as Humanitarian Governance: The Need for a Critical Research Agenda

Posted by Adèle Garnier, Kristin B. Sandvik & Liliana Lyra Jubilut on Wednesday, 14 September 2016

This blog post suggests understanding refugee resettlement as an instrument of humanitarian governance from the selection of refugees to their long-term integration. It presents a five-point research agenda aiming to investigate resettlement’s power dynamics in multiscalar perspective, with a focus on: political economy; the UNHCR’s competing goals; and the role of discretion, persuasion and coercion in resettlement’s discourse and practice. Refugee resettlement can be described as the orderly and long-term relocation to safety of individuals in dire need of protection. It is one of three durable solutions in the international refugee regime (in addition to local integration and voluntary repatriation). ...

African Drone Proliferation: The Meaning of Leapfrogging

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Tuesday, 7 June 2016

The ongoing drone proliferation throughout Africa has received little critical attention. However, African drone proliferation has become a vehicle for the production and distribution of forms of legitimacy and of resources that have implications for drone proliferation both within and outside Africa.  More specifically, the percep­tion of Africa as being in need of external drone intervention dovetails with the drone industry’s efforts to identify and promote good uses for drones — efforts that are central to increasing the legitimacy of drones in the eyes of the Global North. This blog post discusses the ways in which drones are presented as ...

The Humanitarian Quest for Accountability: Examining the role of UNHCR

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Katja Lindskov Jacobsen on Monday, 23 May 2016

The European refugee crisis has been a difficult experience for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). On the one hand, UNHCR has been criticized by civil society and the humanitarian community for not being present on Greek islands. On the other hand, the organization has experienced difficulties in negotiating this access with Greek authorities. In addition to criticism of UNHCRs actions/inactions in Greece, the organization also faced criticism for not doing enough to push states across Europe to admit a bigger responsibility for the refugee crisis, and to accept greater numbers of refugees for resettlement. In the fall ...

Insecurity in the Humanitarian Cyberspace: A Call for Innovation

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Monday, 9 May 2016

Humanitarian practitioners and scholars are currently struggling with how to analyse the opportunities and challenges of technological innovation. This includes not only what technological innovation can do for humanitarianism but also what it does to humanitarian action. Over the last two decades, innovations have fueled the creation of a humanitarian cyberspace. It is now time for the task of addressing the challenges posed by the humanitarian cyberspace to be prioritised on the humanitarian innovation agenda. The term cyberspace broadly refers to the realm of computer networks and the internet. The traditional notion that the ´virtual` world is a different social ...

Is The War on Drugs a Humanitarian Crisis?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Kristian Hoelscher on Friday, 18 March 2016

Humanitarian actors increasingly look to frame the failure of the War on Drugs as an imperative for renewed engagement in Latin America. When leaders meet at UNGASS 2016 in April, legalization will be central in discussions, but issues of humanitarian encroachment should also be on the table. In Latin America, the four-decade long War on Drugs has had devastating impacts on the health, safety and wellbeing of rural communities, and imposed de facto states of siege in heavily militarized urban areas where government forces engage narco-trafficking groups. In reflecting on the legacies of disappearances, murders and displacement, the Drug Policy ...

Futureproofing Humanitarianism for Permanent Emergencies: Unpacking the Promise of Cooperation

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 16 March 2016

Despite the strong growth of the humanitarian sector, there is an increasing operational and financial deficit in the capacity of governments and humanitarian organizations to respond. This has led to calls for changes in the way such crises are understood and managed. As humanitarians grapple with what is increasingly imagined as a future of permanent emergencies, the promise of cooperation has taken center stage as a way of dealing with an uncertain future. Humanitarianism has a long history of trying to improve itself incrementally through best practice examples, ever more fine-grained standards, and reforms. As humanitarian actors undertake periodic renewal ...

New Developments in Drone Proliferation: How Africa was Deployed to Rescue Drones

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 24 February 2016

Debates on global drone proliferation tend to assume that adoption and adaptation of drones follow a universal logic and that the drone industry is a singular thing, geographically concentrated in the Global North. In this blog post I argue that these assumptions make it difficult to critically assess the growth in drone use across Africa. I suggest that one way to think about African drone proliferation is by considering the way drones and Africa are being construed as solutions to each other’s problems: drones are seen as a game changer for develop­ment and security, while in return Africa inspire new ...

An Academic New Year’s Resolution for Colombia: Understanding Continued Gendered Violence as a Threat to Positive Peace

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 16 December 2015

Over the last decade, Colombia has been host to the world’s largest population of internally displaced people (IDP). In 2016, it is expected that the Colombian government and FARC will reach a peace agreement, marking the formal end of more than 50 years of civil war. It is widely recognized that this peace agreement will not resolve the immediate causes of displacement, but rather generate one kind of settlement in a context of longstanding and complex uses of violence. At present, contradictory tendencies seem to be at play: While periods of 2015 have seen the lowest levels of violence recorded ...

What’s Wrong with the Idea that ‘Robots don’t Rape’?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Kjersti Lohne on Wednesday, 2 December 2015

The politics of rape denunciation is fast becoming the politics of lobbyists, vendors and military manufacturers seeking access to new customers and markets. The recognition of wartime rape as a fundamental violation of international law has been a hard-fought victory. Ending rape and other forms of sexual violence in war ought to be a central aspiration of the international community. But the struggle against rape has attained a kind of moral currency, put to use by those lobbying for ‘lethal autonomous weapons’ (LAWs). And in doing so, the politics of rape denunciation is fast becoming the politics of lobbyists, vendors ...

Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Killing the ‘Robots-don’t-Rape’ Argument

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Kjersti Lohne on Thursday, 13 August 2015

Earlier this spring, we debated a law professor who insisted that lethal autonomous weapons (LAWS) could clean up war. The professor posited that a war fought with autonomous weapons would be a war without rape. Taking humans out of the loop would, the argument goes, lead to more humane war. We find this narrative, where technological innovation is equated with human progress based on the assumption that it will end the occurrence of rape in war, highly problematic. We have since reflected on what this ‘progress narrative’ is about and how we as a scholars should approach this type of ...

From IDPs to Victims in Colombia: Transition from Humanitarian Crisis through Law Reform?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Julieta Lemaitre on Wednesday, 1 July 2015

What are the challenges of responding to displacement as a problem of transitional justice? In the Colombian context, pervasive violent conflict coexists with constitutional democracy. In recent years, the legal framework for dealing with internal displacement has been altered by the 2011 Victims’ Law. Based on newly published work on Colombia, this blog post discusses the changing conditions for displaced women’s legal mobilization. Imposing the rule of law in post-conflict situations has often been seen as a means of filling normative voids that both enable and result from conflict. Colombia offers a unique opportunity to reflect critically on how progressive ...

Beyond Sexual Violence: Gendered Political Insecurity as a Threat to Peace

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Julieta Lemaitre on Monday, 13 April 2015

Based on extensive field research in Colombia, our new article “Beyond Sexual Violence in Transitional Justice: Political Insecurity as a Gendered Harm” examines political insecurity as a specifically gendered harm that must be addressed in the ongoing Colombian transitional justice process. In a previous blogpost we described the tragic plight of the women’s rights activist and survivor of sexual violence Angélica Bello. Bello was one of the main proponents of Law 18 June 2014, which sets out to guarantee access to justice for victims of sexual violence. The Law is part of the transitional justice process and seeks to bring ...

Evaluating Ebola: the Politics of the Military Response Narrative

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 18 March 2015

While the humanitarian community is still struggling to help end the Ebola epidemic, talk about lessons learned and the need for critical evaluations have been on the way for some time already. Here, I suggest that humanitarians must pay keen attention to the post-Ebola narrative of military victory that is currently emerging. To see the deployment of military personnel, strategies and tactics as the game changer is unfair, because it invisibilises the resilience of the nationals of Ebola affected countries, as well as the efforts of local health workers and (some) humanitarians to address and control the outbreak. However, this ...

Conundrums in the Embrace of the Private Sector

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Thursday, 19 February 2015

The humanitarian sector faces an unprecedented number of crises globally. The growing operational and financial deficit in the capacity of governments and humanitarian organizations to respond has led to calls for changes in the way such crises are understood and managed. This involves a strong focus on cooperation and partnerships with the private sector. A large part of the allure is the notion that private-public partnerships will make humanitarian response faster by entrenching market-oriented rationalities, thus enhancing effectiveness. This is also how the private sector presents itself: One should never underestimate the power of private companies who offer aid. Companies ...

Fighting the War with the Ebola Drone

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Friday, 12 December 2014

A particularly interesting and puzzling corner of the War on Ebola imaginary is inhabited by the triad consisting of Ebola, humanitarian governance, and unmanned technology, drones more precisely. Out of this triad has emerged what will here be called ´the Ebola Drone`. The Ebola Drone has materialized from a confluence of ideas about the relationship between diseases and (inter)national security; the means and ends of effective aid delivery; and the potentiality of drones to «be good». The Ebola Drone is imagined to be able to do many things, including seeing, sensing and shooting Ebola infected individuals to protect Western Health ...

Humanitarian Innovation, Humanitarian Renewal?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 12 November 2014

The continued evolution of the humanitarian innovation concept needs a critical engagement with how this agenda interacts with previous and contemporary attempts to improve humanitarian action. Accountability and transparency have been central to discussions of humanitarian action over the past two decades. Yet these issues appear generally to be given scant attention in the discourse around humanitarian innovation. The humanitarian innovation agenda is becoming a self-contained field with its own discourse and its own set of experts, institutions and projects – and even a definitive founding moment, namely 2009, when the ALNAP study on innovation in humanitarian action was published. ...

New NATO Cyber Defense Policy: Unclear on Key Issues

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Saturday, 18 October 2014

Against the background of increasing dependence on technology and on the internet, NATO is advancing its efforts to confront the wide range of cyber threats. Presented at the organization’s 2014 summit in Wales, on 4 September 2014, a new defense policy states that there is no distinction between cyber attack and physical attack.  The update from the 2011 policy, to keep pace with technology developments, includes changing NATO’s mission of collective defence with respect to cyber attacks.  Since the late 1990s, military, political and commercial actors have worked to frame cyber-attacks as forms of warfare. NATO’s new cyber defense policy ...

Ebola: A Humanitarian Crisis or a Crisis of Humanitarian Governance?

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Wednesday, 15 October 2014

With more than 8,000 confirmed, suspected and probable cases of Ebola and nearly 4,000 deaths, mainly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the impact of this Ebola outbreak far surpasses all previous outbreaks registered since the disease was identified in 1976. But what type of crisis is this? Is this just another humanitarian crisis in a year unusually crowded with emergencies, or is it also a serious crisis of humanitarian governance? What kind of crisis is this? In popular culture and current media coverage, Ebola is often portrayed more as a civilisational crisis than a humanitarian one: the fear-mongering and alarmist outbreak narratives, including frequent allusions to Zombies, are reminiscent ...

New Technology – Better Disaster Relief?

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, John Karlsrud & Kristin B. Sandvik on Sunday, 17 August 2014

New technology has become central to relief efforts in humanitarian crises. This may make relief efforts more effective, but we can’t assume that the technology will have only a beneficial impact on the recipients of emergency aid. Today, mobile phones, social media, crisis mapping, online volunteering, and pre-paid cards are changing how humanitarian crises are identified, analysed and addressed – and, not least, who the humanitarian responder is. Information technology has become an integral part of crisis response operations: in the wake of  Typhoon Yolanda in the Philippines in November 2013, re-establishing internet access was the top priority for humanitarian organisations. ...

A Humanitarian Technology Policy Agenda for 2016

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Thursday, 10 July 2014

The World Humanitarian Summit in 2016 will feature transformation through innovation as a key theme. Leading up to the summit, OCHA has voiced the need to “identify and implement….positions that address operational challenges and opportunities” (OCHA 2013) relating to the use of information technology, big data and innovations in humanitarian action. In this blog post we sketch out four areas in need of further research over the next two years to provide policymakers, humanitarian actors and other stakeholders with up to date and relevant research and knowledge. Empowerment and Accountability The role of aggregated data Enabling and regulating V&TCs Read ...

Lethal Autonomous Weapons: Issues for the International Community

Posted by Nic Marsh & Kristin B. Sandvik on Monday, 12 May 2014

On May 13-16 a United Nations (UN) expert meeting will discuss ‘questions relating to emerging technologies’ in lethal autonomous weapon systems. Such systems are distinguished by being mobile and selecting targets autonomously without direct human supervision. This type of expert meeting represents the lowest rung of the UN ladder. The Chair of the meeting will simply write up a report to be presented later in 2014 to the annual discussions by States on the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons. But the expert meeting in May could be the start of a process which might see the development of new national and international law to ...

The Promise and Perils of ‘Disaster Drones’

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik & Kjersti Lohne on Monday, 2 December 2013

The dire humanitarian consequences of the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, or drones) in conflict have become all too familiar. In contrast, there has been much less public discussion about the potential humanitarian uses of drones. So-called ‘disaster drones’ offer humanitarian agencies a range of possibilities in relation to crisis mapping, search and rescue and (some way off in the future) cargo transport and relief drops. Read more in the blog post by Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (PRIO) and Kjersti Lohne (UiO) at the Norwegian Centre for Humanitarian Studies, November 1 2013.

Most Importantly a Nobel for the Colombian People and the Victims of the Civil War

Posted by Kristin B. Sandvik on Friday, 7 October 2016

The Norwegian Nobel Committee emphasizes that the award of the 2016 Nobel Peace Prize to the Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos is not only a prize given in recognition of his own personal efforts to end the more than 50 year old civil war in the country, but that this award is also given to the Colombian people and to all the parties contributing to the peace process. While not explicitly mentioned, this also includes the FARC, and could be read as an appreciation of FARC’s willingness to contribute to the struggle for peace, post-referendum. The prize is also a ...

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