Coordinator: Marta Bivand Erdal

​​​​​​​The Migration research group addresses central theoretical aspects of migration and transnationalism, and the ways in which these phenomena are connected with peace and conflict. We seek to understand migration processes, the transnational ties created after migration, and their consequences for individuals and societies. The changes caused by migration are interlinked with other forms of social change in conflict, post-conflict, and peaceful contexts.​​

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​Migration and transnationalism interact with situations of peace and conflict in a number of ways. Many migration flows are caused by armed conflict, diasporas may play a role in the perpetuation or resolution of conflicts, and finding solutions for refugee populations may be fundamental to establishing a lasting peace.

Migration and migrants' transnational ties may also be significant for peace and development in societies of origin. In many communities across the world, links with migrants abroad is a main aspect of global connectedness. In societies of settlement, too, immigration and transnationalism affect the ways in which peaceful coexistence is possible, and how identity and citizenship are negotiated and experienced.

Furthermore, migration pressures and security concerns have contributed to the militarization of migration control and the erosion of humanitarian principles. Migration research is not only concerned with the people who move but also with those who experience hardship because they are prevented from moving. ​


Current Projects

Past Projects

Research Group News

Upcoming Events

Past Events


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) Juxtaposing Pakistani diaspora policy with migrants’ transnational citizenship practices, Geoforum 76: 1–10.
Bygnes, Susanne & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Liquid migration, grounded lives: considerations about future mobility and settlement among Polish and Spanish migrants in Norway, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2016.1211004 .
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kaja Borchgrevink (2016) Transnational Islamic charity as everyday rituals, Global Networks. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12137.
Fangen , Katrine & Åshild Kolås (2016) The “Syria traveller”: Reintegration or legal sanctioning?, Critical Studies on Terrorism. DOI: 10.1080/17539153.2016.1192260: 1–19.
Paasche, Erlend (2016) The role of corruption in reintegration: experiences of Iraqi Kurds upon return from Europe, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42(7): 1076–1093.
Bolognani, Marta & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Return Imaginaries and Political Climate: Comparing Thinking About Return Mobilities Among Pakistani Origin Migrants and Descendants in Norway and the UK, Journal of International Migration and Integration. DOI: 10.1007/s12134-016-0470-4: 1–15.
Horst, Cindy & Anab Nur (2016) Governing mobility through humanitarianism in South-central Somalia: compromising protection for the sake of return?, Development and Change 47(3): 542–562.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Aleksandra Lewicki (2016) Moving citizens: Citizenship practices among Polish migrants in Norway and the United Kingdom, Social Identities 22(1): 112–128.
Bell, Justyna & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Limited but enduring transnational ties? Transnational family life among Polish migrants in Norway, Polish Diaspora Review (Studia Migracyjne – Przegląd Polonijny) 157(3): 77–98.
Abdin, Zain Ul & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Remittance-sending among Pakistani taxi-drivers in Barcelona and Oslo: Implications of migration-trajectories and the protracted electricity crisis in Pakistan, Migration and Development. DOI: 10.1080/21632324.2015.1081334.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Anum Amjad; Qamar Bodla & Asma Rubab (2015) Going back to Pakistan for education? The interplay of return mobilities, education and transnational living, Population, Space and Place. DOI: 10.1002/psp.1966.
Horst, Cindy & katarzyna grabska (2015) Flight and Exile—Uncertainty in the Context of Conflict-induced displacement, Social Analysis: Journal of Cultural and Social Practice 59(1): 1–18.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) 'Where are you from' or 'when did you come'? Temporal dimensions in migrants' reflections about settlement and return, Ethnic and Racial Studies 38(7): 1202–1217.
Sinatti, Giulia & Cindy Horst (2015) Migrants as agents of development: Diaspora engagement discourse and practice in Europe, Ethnicities 15(1): 134–152.
Fangen , Katrine & Mari Vaage (2014) FrP-politikeres innvandringsretorikk i posisjon og opposisjon, Agora: Journal For Metafysisk Spekulasjon 31(34): 30–63.
Hudson, Heidi (2014) Contextualising African Identities, Othering and the Politics of Space, Africa Insight 44(1): 1–6.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) 'This is my home' Pakistani and Polish Migrants’ Return Considerations as Articulations About ‘Home’, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 361–384.
Brown, Richard; Jørgen Carling; Sonja Fransen & Melissa Siegel (2014) Measuring remittances through surveys: Methodological and conceptual issues for survey designers and data analysts, Demographic Research 31: 1243–1274.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2014) Return Migration Intentions in the Integration–Transnationalism Matrix, International Migration 52(6): 13–30.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) Praca i rodzina: Rozważania o powrocie wśród Polaków mieszkających w Norwegii [Work and Family: Return considerations among Polish migrants living in Norway], Studia Migracyjne-Przegląd Polonijny(2): 41–64.
Carling, Jørgen (2014) Scripting Remittances: Making Sense of Money Transfers in Transnational Relationships, International Migration Review 48: 218–262.
Sagmo, Tove Heggli (2014) Return Visits as a Marker of Differentiation in the Social Field, Mobilities. DOI: 10.1080/17450101.2014.891860.
Demetriou, Olga (2014) 'Struck by the Turks': Reflections on Armenian Refugeehood in Cyprus, Patterns of Prejudice. DOI: 10.1080/0031322X.2014.905369.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2014) Split Return: Transnational Household Strategies in Afghan Repatriation, International Migration 52(6): 57–71.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Beyond the insider–outsider divide in migration research, Migration Studies 2(1): 36–54.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2013) Migrant Transnationalism and Multi-Layered Integration: Norwegian-Pakistani Migrants’ Own Reflections, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 983–999.
Brekke, Torkel (2013) Religion and Sex-Selective Abortion: A comparative study of immigrants from South Asia to Norway, Diaspora Studies 6(1): 31–40.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2013) Controlling the Mediterranean Space through Surveillance: The Politics and Discourse of Surveillance as an All-encompassing Solution to EU Maritime Border Management Issues, Espace Populations Sociétés 2012(3): 35–48.
Horst, Cindy (2013) The depoliticization of diasporas from the Horn of Africa: From refugees to transnational aid workers, African Studies 72(2): 228–245.
Carling, Jørgen & Kristian Hoelscher (2013) The Capacity and Desire to Remit: Comparing Local and Transnational Influences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 939–958.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Ceri Oeppen (2013) Migrant Balancing Acts: Understanding the Interactions Between Integration and Transnationalism, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 867–884.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Who is the money for? Remittances within and beyond the household in Pakistan, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 21(4): 437–458.
Hernández Carretero, María & Jørgen Carling (2012) Beyond "Kamikaze Migrants": Risk Taking in West African Boat Migration to Europe, Human Organization 71(4): 407–416.
Paasche, Erlend; & Fangen , Katrine (2012) Transnational Involvement: Reading Quantitative Studies in Light of Qualitative Data , International Journal of Population Research – 12.
Fangen , Katrine; & Erlend Paasche (2012) Young Adults of Ethnic Minority Background on the Norwegian Labour Market: The Interactional Co-construction of Exclusion by Employers and Customers, Ethnicities 13(5): 607–624.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) 'A Place to Stay in Pakistan': Why Migrants Build Houses in their Country of Origin, Population, Space and Place 18(5): 629–641.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2012) The Transnationalization of the Taliban, International Area Studies Review15(3): 203–229.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Cindy Horst (2012) How does Conflict in Migrants’ Country of Origin Affect Remittance-Sending? Financial Priorities and Transnational Obligations Among Somalis and Pakistanis in Norway, International Migration Review 46(2): 283–309.
Carling, Jørgen;Schmalzbauer, Leah; & Menjívar, Cecilia (2012)Central Themes in the Study of Transnational Parenthood , Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 191–217.
Åkesson, Lisa; Jørgen Carling & Heike Drotbohm (2012) Mobility, Moralities and Motherhood: Navigating the Contingencies of Cape Verdean Lives, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 237–260.
Carling, Jørgen; & Hernández Carretero, María (2011) Protecting Europe and Protecting Migrants? Strategies for Managing Unauthorised Migration from Africa , British Journal of Politics and International Relations 13(1): 42–58.
Fadnes, Ellen; & Horst, Cindy (2009) Responses to Internal Displacement in Colombia: Guided by What Principles?, Refuge 26(1): 111–120.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kristian Stokke (2009) Contributing to Development? Transnational Activities among Tamils in Norway, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 18(3): 397–418.
Carling, Jørgen & Lisa Åkesson (2009) Mobility at the Heart of a Nation: Patterns and Meanings of Cape Verdean Migration, International Migration 47(3): 123–155.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Determinants of Migrant Remittances , Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24(3): 582–599.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Human Dynamics of Migrant Transnationalism , Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(8): 1452–1477.
Horst, Cindy (2008) The Transnational Political Engagements of Refugees: Remittance Sending Practices amongst Somalis in Norway, Conflict, Security and Development 8(3): 31–339.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Toward a Demography of Immigrant Communities and Their Transnational Potential, International Migration Review 42(2): 449–475.
Horst, Cindy (2008) A Monopoly on Assistance? International Aid to Refugee Camps and the Role of the Diaspora, Afrika Spectrum 43(1): 121–131.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Unauthorized migration from Africa to Spain , International Migration 45(4): 3–37.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Borders , International Migration Review 41(2): 316–343.
Horst, Cindy (2006)Buufis amongst Somalis in Dadaab: The Transnational and Historical Logics Behind Resettlement Dreams , Journal of Refugee Studies 19(2): 143–157.
Horst, Cindy; & Horst, Cindy (2006)Refugee livelihoods: Continuity and Transformations , Refugee Survey Quarterly 25(2): 6–22.
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2005) On the Edge of the Chinese Diaspora: The Surge of Baihuo Business in an African City, Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 639–662.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Fra Nigeria til Europa: Innvandring, menneskesmugling og menneskehandel [From Nigeria to Europe: Immigration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons] , Report For the Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders , Population, Space and Place 10(2): 113–132.
Carling, Jørgen (2003) Cartographies of Cape Verdean transnationalism , Global Networks 3(4): 533–539.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: Theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences , Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(1): 5–42.

PhD Thesis

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Transnational ties and belonging: Remittances from Pakistani migrants in Norway. PhD thesis, Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Transnationalism in the Context of Restrictive Immigration Policy. PhD thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, .
Carling, Jørgen (2001) Aspiration and ability in international migration: Cape Verdean experiences of mobility and immobilityUniversity of Oslo, .


Demetriou, Olga (2013) Capricious Borders: Minority, Population, and Counter-Conduct Between Greece and Turkey. Oxford: Berghahn.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2009) Social Networks and Migration in Wartime Afghanistan. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Horst, Cindy (2006) Transnational Nomads: How Somalis Cope with Refugee Life in the Dadaab Camps of Kenya. : .

Book Chapter

Carling, Jørgen (2016) Trajectórias transnacionais de mães e crianças nas famílias cabo-verdanas [Mother-child trajectories in Cape Verdean transnational families], in Furtado, Cláudio Alves; Pierre-Joseph Laurent; & Iolanda Évora, eds, As Ciências Sociais Em Cabo Verde. Praia: Edições Uni-CV (187–206).
Horst, Cindy & Mulki Al-Sharmani (2016) Marginal actors? Diaspora Somalis Negotiate Their Citizenship, in Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa; Päivi Harinen; & Ville-Samuli Haverinen, eds, Dislocations of Civic Cultural Borderlines: Methodological Nationalism, Transnational Reality and Cosmopolitan Dreams. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing (107–122).
Horst, Cindy; Sonia Pereira & Olivia Sheringham (2015) The Impact of Class on Feedback Mechanisms: Brazilian Migration to Norway, Portugal and the United Kingdom, in Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (90–112).
Horst, Cindy; Stephen Lubkemann & Robtel Pailey (2015) The Invisibility of a Third Humanitarian Domain, in Sezgin, Zeynep; & Dennis Dijkzeul, eds, The New Humanitarians In International Practice: Emerging Actors and Contested Principles. London: Routledge (213–231).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) Making and Breaking a Chain: Migrants’ Decisions about Helping Others Migrate, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (156–182).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) Exploring 12 Migration Corridors: Rationale, Methodology and Overview, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (18–46).
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) The diaspora meets the ‘development industry’: Engaging Norwegian-Pakistanis in development back home, in Tan, Y.T.; & M. Rahman, eds, International Migration and Development In South Asia. Abingdon: Routledge (44–60).
Sagmo, Tove Heggli (2015) The role of social capital in post-conflict business development: perspectives from returning migrants in Burundi, in Africa's Return Migrants: the New Developers?. London: Zed Books (109–129).
Engbersen, Godfried; Erik Snel & Cindy Horst (2015) Beyond networks: Insights on feedback and mechanisms of the middle range, in Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (231–246).
Demetriou, Olga (2014) Situating Loss in the Greek-Turkish Encounter in Cyprus, in When Greeks and Turks Meet: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Relationship Since 1923. Farnham: Ashgate (45–64).
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol & Cindy Horst (2014) Norwegian collaboration with diasporas, in Laakso, Liisa; & Petri Hautaniemi, eds, Diasporas, Development and Peacemaking In the Horn of Africa. London/New York: Zed Books .
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) The social dynamics of remittance-receiving in Pakistan: Agency and opportunity among non-migrants in a transnational social field, in Migrant Remittances In South Asia Social, Economic and Political Implications. London: Palgrave Macmillan (115–134).
Friberg, Jon Horgen & Cindy Horst (2014) RDS and the Structure of Migrant Populations, in Tyldum, Guri; & Lisa Johnston, eds, Applying Respondent Driven Sampling to Migrant Populations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan .
Montealegre, Jane; Antje Röder & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Formative assessment, data collection and parallell monitoring for RDS fieldwork, in Tyldum, Guri; & Lisa Johnston, eds, Applying Respondent Driven Sampling to Migrant Populations. Lessons from the Field. London: Palgrave Pivot (62–83).
Horst, Cindy (2013) International Aid to Refugees in Kenya: The Neglected Role of the Somali Diaspora, in Kane, Abdoulaye; & Todd Leedy, eds, African Migrations: Patterns and Perspectives. Indiana: Indiana University Press (195–210).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Ezzati (2013) Når ute også er hjemme. Migrasjon og utenrikspolitikk, in Weltzien, Åsmund; & Odd Mølster, eds, Norge Og Det Nye Verdenskartet. Oslo: Cappelen Damm (58–79).
Paasche, Erlend; Are Knudsen & Arne Strand (2013) War and Migration, in The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Lischer, Sarah (2013) Refugee Militancy in Exile and Upon Return in Afghanistan and Rwanda, in Jeffrey T. Checkel, ed., Transnational Dynamics of Civil War. Cambridge University Press (89–119).
Horst, Cindy(2012) Chapter 2: Vulnerability and Protection: reducing risks and promoting security for forced migrants World Disaster Report 2012. : International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies(46–79).
Horst, Cindy(2012) The Livelihoods Approach Food Security Handbook. : Norwegian Refugee Council.
Naftalin, Mark(2012) Darfur The Oxford Companion to American Politics. : Oxford University Press(249–254).
Naftalin, Mark(2012) Darfur The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics. : Oxford University Press(273–278).
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Collecting, Analysing and Presenting Migration Histories, in Vargas-Silva, Carlos, ed., Handbook of Research Methods In Migration. Edward Elgar Publishing(137–162).
Carling, Jørgen(2011) The European Paradox of Unwanted Migration A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration. : Brussels University Press (VUB)(33–46).
Ezzati, Rojan(2011) 'Alle ser på oss som utlendinger uansett': Selvbilder og andre bilder av unge menn med muslimsk bakgrunn etter 11. september 2001, in Eriksen, Thomas Hylland, ed., Kulturell Kompleksitet I Det Nye Norge. : Unipub(57–67).
Harpviken, Kristian Berg(2010) The Return of the Refugee Warrior: Migration and Armed Resistance in Herat Beyond the Wild Tribes: Understanding Modern Afghanistan and Its Diaspora. : (121–137).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands, in Jørgen Carling, ed., Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora.. .
Carling, Jørgen & Luís Batalha (2008) Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora, in Jørgen Carling, ed., Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. .
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2008) Mixed Fates of a Popular Minority: Chinese migrants in Cape Verde, in Chris Alden, ed., China Returns to Africa. a Rising Power and a Continent Embrace. (319–337).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Interrogating Remittances: Core Questions for Deeper Insight and Better Policies, in Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. (43–64).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) 'Diaspora', 'Immigration', 'Emigration', 'Population', and 'Remittances', in Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde. .
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Interrogar a las remesas: perguntas centrales para reflexiones más profundas y políticas más adecuadas [Interrogating remittances: core questions for deeper insight and better policies], in Migración Y Desarrollo: Perspectivas Desde El Sur. (51–73).
Horst, Cindy(2007) The Somali Community in Minneapolis: Expectations and Realities From Mogadishu to Dixon: the Somali Diaspora In a Global Context. : .
Horst, Cindy(2007) The Role of Remittances in the Transnational Livelihood Strategies of Somalis Global Migration and Development. : .
Horst, Cindy(2007) Connected Lives: Somalis in Minneapolis Dealing with Family Responsibilities and Migration Dreams of Relatives Somalia: Diaspora and State Reconstitution In the Horn of Africa. : (89–101).
Carling, Jørgen(2005) Incorporer certains enseignements des recherches sur la migration dans les politiques des transferts de fonds [Incorporating Insights from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances] Migrations, Transferts De Fonds Et Développement. : OECD(309–316).
Carling, Jørgen(2005) Incorporating Insight from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances Migration, Remittances and Development. : (289–296).

Edited Volume

Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, (2015) Beyond Networks: Feedback in International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, (2008) Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam.
Carling, Jørgen (ed.) (2002) Nordic demography: Trends and differentials. Oslo. Scandinavian Population Studies.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand & Aleksandra Lewicki (2016) Polish migration within Europe: mobility, transnationalism and integration , Social Identities 22(1): 1–9.
Carling, Jørgen; Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel (2015) Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption, Migration Information Source 5.
Horst, Cindy (2015) Somalia’s hope for the future? The return of young Diaspora Somalis, Horn of Africa Bulletin 27(5): 12–17.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Return Migration and Transnationalism: How Are the Two Connected?, International Migration 52(6): 2–12.
Lee, Jennifer; Jørgen Carling & Pia Orrenius (2014) The International Migration Review at 50: Reflecting on Half a Century of International Migration Research and Looking Ahead, International Migration Review 48: 3–36.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) Transnationalism in a Comparative Perspective: An Introduction, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 255–260.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) The Merits and Limitations of Spain's High-Tech Border Control , Migration Information Source .
Carling, Jørgen; & Haugen, Heidi Østbø (2005) Sie wagen und gewinnen. Chinesische Händler in Afrika. [They Dare and Win. Chinese Traders in Africa.] , Der Überblick: Zeitschrift Für Ökumenische Begegnung Und Internationale Zusammenarbeit 41(4): 19–23.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Trafficking in Women from Nigeria to Europe , Migration Information Source .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Innvandrere prioriterer å sende penger til familien [Immigrants Give Priority to Sending Money to the Family] , Samfunnsspeilet 18(6): 53–63.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Transnazionalismo "olandese-capoverdiano". Denaro, culture e parentela [Dutch-Cape Verdean Transnationalism. Cash, Culture and Kinship] , Afriche E Orienti 6186–202.

Popular Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) Hverdagsintegrering for norskfødte [Everyday integration for the 'Norwegian-born'], Dagbladet.
Tank, Pinar & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert (2016) Flyktningavtalen mellom EU og Tyrkia er kostbar - særlig for flyktningene [The EU-Turkey Deal is Costly - Especially for the Refugees], Aftenposten.
Sagmo, Tove Heggli ; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Innvandringsdebatt på feil premisser [Wrong premises for the debate about immigration into Europe], NRK Ytring.
Syse, Henrik (2015) Fire år etter terroren: De viktige debattene [Four years after the terror: The important debates], VG, 22.07.2015.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Muslimer flest feirer id [Most Muslims Celebrate Eid], Dagbladet.
Hatay, Mete (2015) 35. Paralel ve Göç Hareketleri [35th Paralel and Forced Migration], Poli, Havadis Newspaper, 21.6.2015.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen & Cindy Horst (2015) En byrde ingen vil bære [A burden no one wants to bear], Dagsavisen.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) Når foreldre frykter staten [When parents fear the state], Vårt Land.
Tunander, Ola (2015) Norges ansvar for katastrofen i Middelhavet [Norway's responsibility for the catastrophe in the Mediterranean], Ny Tid.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2015) Et nærblikk på grenseovervåkningen i Middelhavet [A Close-up on Border Control in the Meditteranean], Ny Tid.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Når blir du norsk? [When do you become Norwegian?], Aftenposten.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Evig innvandrer, aldri norsk [Eternal immigrant, never Norwegian], Bergens Tidende.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Norske fremmedhjelpere [Foreign helpers], NRK Ytring.
Jdid, Noor (2014) Ufrivillig tvangstrøye [Involuntary Straightjacket], Dagbladet.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Nationalism Under Pressure: Islamic State, Iraq and Kurdistan, ISN Security Watch.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2014) Avleggs statsborgerskapslov [Outdated citizenship legislation], Dagens Næringsliv.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2014) Flytkningene er et felles ansvar [Refugees are a shared responsibility], NRK Ytring.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Kan Irak fikses? [Can Iraq be fixed?], Dagsavisen.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Vaklende løsrivelse [Faltering seccession], Morgenbladet.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Nasjonalisme under press [Nationalism under pressure], Dagens Næringsliv.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Muslimsk dugnad for de fattige [Muslim charity for the poor], VG.
Talleraas, Cathrine & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Stillheten om retur til Etiopia [The silence about return to Ethiopia], Ytring.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) En langvarig utfordring [A Long-Term Challenge], NRK Ytring.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2013) Den usynlige bistanden, Klassekampen.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Ezzati, Rojan (2013) Norge og det nye verdenskartet [Norway and the new world map], Dagsavisen, 22 May.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2013) Mindre norsk med to pass [Less Norwegian with two passports], Ytring.
Horst, Cindy (2012) Finding protection from violent conflict and famine?, Sarvi. Horn of Africa Journal, .
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Tillit til staten [Confidence in the state], Dagbladet, .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Naftalin, Mark (2012) Conflating Spaces: Syrian Rebels and Refugees in South Turkey , ISN Security Watch , 18 September.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Naftalin, Mark (2012) Militarisering av flyktningene [Militarization amongst refugees] , Dagsavisen , 29 August.
Horst, Cindy (2012) En trygg havn? [A safe haven?], Dagbladet.
Lischer, Sarah (2011) No Refuge for Somali Refugees, Huffington Post, 4 November.
Lischer, Sarah (2011) Why Western Aid Won't Save Somalia, Huffington Post, 9 August.
Ezzati, Rojan (2011) Fragmentering i terrorens tid [Fragmentation in the Time of Terror], Dagsavisen , 2 August.
Erdal, Marta Bivand;Horst, Cindy;Carling, Jørgen; & Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten , 8 November.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Ekskludert fra utvikling? [Excluded from Development?], Dagsavisen, 29 July.
Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Kravet om forklaring, Dagsavisen, 14 July.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Mohamed Husein Gaas & Cindy Horst (2008) Tvunget til lovbrudd [Forced to Break the Law], Dagbladet, 2 April.
Horst, Cindy (2007) Somaliere i Norge: Krigere eller velgjørere? [Somalis in Norway: Warriors or Benefactors?], Dagbladet, 18 January.
Nome, Frida Austvoll; & Carling, Jørgen (2005) Hvem er menneskesmuglerne? [Who are the Human Smugglers?], Dagbladet, 1 February.

PRIO Report

Horst, Cindy; Rojan Ezzati; Matteo Guglielmo; Petra Mezzetti; Päivi Pirkkalainen; Valeria Saggiomo; Giulia Sinatti; & Andrea Warnecke (2010) Participation of Diasporas in Peacebuilding and Development. A Handbook for Practitioners and Policymakers, PRIO Report, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Migrant Remittances and Development Cooperation, PRIO Report, 1. Oslo: PRIO.

Master Thesis

Talleraas, Cathrine (2014) The policy determinants of migration: What is the role of the Senegalese government in shaping patterns of migration from Senegal to Europe? . MA thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo.
Hernández Carretero, María (2008) Risk-taking in Unauthorised Migration. MA thesis, Centre for Peace Studies, University of Tromsø, .
Sandbæk, Miriam Latif (2007) “Everybody wants to go abroad.” An ethnographic analysis of migration motivations in Morocco. MA thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen, .

Conference Paper

Paasche, Erlend (2014) Elites and emulators: the evolution of an Iraqi Kurdish - European migration system, presented at THEMIS conference: Theorizing migration systems, University of Oxford, 26.02.2014.
Carling, Jørgen; & Hernández Carretero, María 2008 Kamikaze Migrants? Understanding and Tackling High-risk Migration from Africa, presented at Narratives of Migration Management and Cooperation with Countries of Origin and Transit, , 18–19 September.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg 2008What is Special about Refugee Warriors?, presented at Global Migation and Transnational Politics: Towards a New Policy Agenda18 April.
Horst, Cindy 2007 A Monopoly on Assistance? International Aid to Refugee Camps and the Role of the Diaspora, presented at AEGIS Conference, , 11 July.
Carling, Jørgen 2004 Unauthorized Entry at Europe’s Southern Borders: Routes, Dynamics and Fatalities, presented at International Migration in Europe: New Trends, New Methods of Analysis, , 25–27 November .
Carling, Jørgen 2004 Policy options for increasing the benefits of remittances, 27 September—1 October.
Carling, Jørgen 2004 Mellom to hjemland [Between Two Homelands], presented at Utlendingsdirektoratets vårkonferanse 2004, , 19 April.

PRIO Policy Brief

Erdal, Marta Bivand & Mette Strømsø (2016) Norskhet i flertall [Plural Norwegianness], PRIO Policy Brief, 14. Oslo: PRIO.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg & Benjamin Onne Yogev (2016) Syria’s Internally Displaced and the Risk of Militarization, PRIO Policy Brief, 6. Oslo: PRIO.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2016) Exile Socialization, PRIO Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2016) ‘Voting with Their Feet’ or Returning to Fight?, PRIO Policy Brief, 9. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy & Nasra Jama (2016) Resources for Health Care in Somaliland: From the International to the Communal?, PRIO Policy Brief, 23. Oslo: PRIO.
Tellander, Ebba & Mohamed Aden Hassan (2016) Accountability in the Taxation System in Somaliland, PRIO Policy Brief, 24. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Alder, botid og livsfase: Integrering i et tidsperspektiv [Norwegian version], PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Age, life cycle, and length of stay: temporal perspectives on integration [English version], PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Oeppen, Ceri & Nassim Majidi (2015) Can Afghans Reintegrate after Assisted Return from Europe?, PRIO Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cathrine Talleraas (2015) Becoming One of Us?, PRIO Policy Brief, 11. Oslo: PRIO.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Other Voices, Other Choices?, PRIO Policy Brief, 15. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kaja Borchgrevink (2015) Diaspora Development Engagements Seen Through the Prism of Islamic Charity, PRIO Policy Brief, 16. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy (2015) Back in Business? Diaspora Return to Somalia, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) Pakistan as a Return Migration Destination, PRIO Policy Brief, 13. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) How Polish Migrants in Norway Consider Return Migration, PRIO Policy Brief, 12. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Humanitarianism and Return: Compromising Protection?, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) The Matrix of Attachment, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) Tilknytningsmatrisen [The Matrix of Attachment], PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Talleraas, Cathrine (2014) The Unintended Effects of Norway’s Readmission Agreement with Ethiopia, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Why Assisted Return Programmes Must Be Evaluated, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Iraqi Kurdistan: Partner Under Pressure, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Mortensen, Elin Berstad (2013) Why are Zimbabwean migrants ambivalent about return? Insights from the project 'Possibilities and Realities of Return Migration', PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Who wants to go to Europe? Results from a large-scale survey on migration aspirations, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Naftalin, Mark & Kristian Berg Harpviken (2012) Rebels and Refugees: Syrians in Southern Turkey, PRIO Policy Brief, 10. Oslo: PRIO.
Gaas, Mohamed Husein & Cindy Horst (2009) Diaspora Organizations from the Horn of Africa in Norway: Contributions to Peacebuilding?, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy (2008) Diaspora Engagements in Development Cooperation, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Carling, Jørgen & Cathrine Talleraas (2016) Root causes and drivers of migration. Implications for humanitarian efforts and development cooperation, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Bolognani, Marta (2015) Unintended consequences of education for Pakistani immigrants and their descendants in the United Kingdom, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen; Elin Berstad Mortensen & Jennifer Wu (2011) A Systematic Bibliography on Return Migration, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Horst, Cindy; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Ezzati (2010) Immigration to Norway from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Morocco and Ukraine, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Engaging Diasporas in Development. A Review of Pilot Project Pakistan, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Policy Challenges Facing Cape Verde in the Areas of Migration and Diaspora Contributions to Development, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bolognani; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Ceri Oeppen; Erlend Paasche; Silje Vatne Pettersen; & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Possibilities and Realities of Return MigrationOslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Alice Ennals; Kari Helene Partapouli; & Nadia Falch Bandak, eds, (2015) Diaspora og Utvikling [Diaspora and Development]Oslo: Development Fund.
Ezzati, Rojan (2012) Migrasjon og nye utenrikspolitiske realiteter [Migration and new Norwegian foreign policy realities]: The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) European Strategies for Reducing 'Unwanted' Immigration, DIIS Brief, : .

Report - External Series

Carling, Jørgen (2015) Beyond Definitions: Global migration and the smuggling–trafficking nexus, RMMS Discussion Paper, 2. Nairobi: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat.
Carling, Jørgen; Papa Demba Fall; María Hernández Carretero; Mame Yassine Sarr; & Jennifer Wu (2013) Migration aspirations in Senegal: Who wants to leave and why does it matter?, European Policy Brief. Brussels: European Commission.
Horst, Cindy (2013) Somalis in Oslo, Somalis in European Cities. New York: Open Society Foundations.
Afeef, Karin Fathimath (2009) A Promised Land for Refugees? Asylum and Migration in Israel, EPAU Working Papers [New Issues in Refugee Research], 183. : .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2008) From 'Refugee Warriors' to 'Returnee Warriors: Militant Homecoming in Afghanistan and Beyond, Global Migration and Transnational Politics Working Paper , 5. Arlington, VA: Center For Global Studies, George Mason University.
Strand, Arne;Akbari, Arghawan ;Wimpelmann Chaudhary, Torunn;Harpviken, Kristian Berg;Sarwari, Akbar; & Suhrke, Astri (2008) Return in Dignity, Return to What? Review of Voluntary Return Programme to Afghanistan , CMI Report, 6. : CMI.
Horst, Cindy (2006) Connected Lives. Somalis in Minneapolis: Family Responsibilities and the Migration Dreams of Relatives, 0, : .
Carling, Jørgen (2006) Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe, IOM Migration Research Series, 23. : .
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Gender Dimensions of International Migration, Global Migration Perspectives, 35. : .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy Options for Increasing the Benefits of Remittances, COMPAS Working Paper, : .
Strand, Arne;Suhrke, Astri; & Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2004) Afghan Refugees in Iran: From Refugee Emergency to Migration Management, CMI Policy Brief, : CMI/PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2001) Aspiration and ability in international migration: Cape Verdean experiences of mobility and immobility, 0, : .

Book Review

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Review of Alexander Betts, ed., Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement, in The Journal of Modern African Studies 52(2): 332–333.
Vargas-Silva, Carlos (2013) Review of Review of Marta Bivand Erdal, ed., Handbook of Research Methods in Migration, in International Migration Review 47(2): 474–475.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2012) Review of Protecting Our Ports: Domestic and International Politics of Containerized Freight Security, in Journal of Peace Research 49(3): .
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Review of The Political Economy of Global Remittances: Gender, Governmentality and Neoliberalism, in Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30: 753–.
Carling, Jørgen(2002) Review of Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move 399–400.

Blog Posts

The End Of Migrants As We Know Them?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 19 September 2016

The UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants holds the promise of progress. But ahead of the summit, communications staff were pushing a warped view of migrant diversity. Even the International Organization of Migration (IOM) is straying from its mission to uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants. When migration issues rose to the top of international agendas last year the word ‘migrants’ became a matter of contention. Many interventions were cast as a matter of clarification and correctness, but actually concealed a fundamental disagreement: do ‘migrants’ include ‘refugees’? There are two opposing views, which can be called inclusivist and residualist. ...

Refugee Resettlement as Humanitarian Governance: The Need for a Critical Research Agenda

Posted by Adèle Garnier, Kristin B. Sandvik & Liliana Lyra Jubilut on Wednesday, 14 September 2016

This blog post suggests understanding refugee resettlement as an instrument of humanitarian governance from the selection of refugees to their long-term integration. It presents a five-point research agenda aiming to investigate resettlement’s power dynamics in multiscalar perspective, with a focus on: political economy; the UNHCR’s competing goals; and the role of discretion, persuasion and coercion in resettlement’s discourse and practice. Refugee resettlement can be described as the orderly and long-term relocation to safety of individuals in dire need of protection. It is one of three durable solutions in the international refugee regime (in addition to local integration and voluntary repatriation). ...

A Sense of Community in Times of Terrorism

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Friday, 22 July 2016

In contrast to the impression one may derive from “the debate about the debate” in Norway, “we” – the overwhelming majority – can agree on many points, including the fact that we stand united in the struggle against extremism. We succeeded in doing so in the “rose marches” five years ago, and we can continue to do so now that the roses commemorating 22 July, 2011 have long since withered. In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 22 July, I wrote about “fragmentation in times of terrorism” [in Norwegian]. My message was that stigmatization and enemy images create and ...

Negotiating Collective Identities

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Thursday, 21 July 2016

The 22 July attacks, now five years ago, bore horrific testimony to what an ideology of exclusion and hatred, at the hands of one man, can do. Whilst the terror was of such a scope that the moment called for a unified response, ideological cleavages along the Eurabia, anti-Islam, and anti-immigration lines soon re-emerged in public debate and on social media. Meanwhile, the conundrum of how collective identities and shared understandings of who ‘we’ are as a democratic society, post-22 July, remains. The reality of our multicultural, diverse society is lived on an everyday basis, though unequally distributed, across the ...

A Post-Brexit We?

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 4 July 2016

Who is the ‘we’ in the context of the Brexit vote? Whilst the protection of British borders was a key ingredient in Brexit debates, the answer to what kind of a community we are talking about within those borders, remains in desperate need of addressing. Lingering notions of cultural purity cannot stand unchallenged. Which community, which sense of ‘we’, was the subject of the battle in Brexit? Brexit was won on immigration, or more accurately on ‘the topic of immigration’. Arguably, it was won on the basis of a particular conception of ‘us’ set up against a variety of ‘thems’, ...

Syria Travellers and Security Threats

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Katrine Fangen on Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Foreign fighters returning from Syria have emerged as a looming security threat in many European countries, so also in Norway. As well as preventive measures against radicalization and mobilization by the Islamic State, there have been calls for the withdrawal of citizenship and deportation of returned foreign fighters. This raises a number of questions. Are Norwegians more secure if we send potential terrorists out of the country? Is this even feasible, if Norway wants to stay within the ‘border-free’ Europe? What are the trade-offs between security and civil rights to citizenship, and how can they best be balanced? Is citizenship essentially something that needs to be earned, or is ...

Norway and Kenya Prepare for Forceful Returns of Somalis

Posted by Anab Ibrahim Nur on Sunday, 12 June 2016

As the blessed month of Ramadan begins, many here in Mogadishu are concerned about the security situation, with talks of increased numbers of Al-Shabaab insurgents entering the city in preparation of carrying out attacks. Driving through the Makka Al Mukram road, considered to be in the safe zone, that is, in the government controlled area, you will see the destruction and havoc that was caused by Al-Shabaab less than a week ago. They attacked the Ambassador Hotel, which resulted not only in the deaths of two prominent members of the Federal Parliament, but countless civilians. The government claims that the ...

Assisted Return Not a Permanent Solution for All Asylum Seekers

Posted by Arne Strand & Lovise Aalen on Tuesday, 3 May 2016

Many asylum seekers who choose assisted return are from a country destroyed by war and conflict. More than half of those who return to countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq plan to migrate again. Assisted return is a viable type of support to assist with the return, but is not sufficient to prevent large numbers of people once again leaving insecure countries of return. Only minor changes are required, however, to increase the potential for permanent return. One important political objective in Norway is to encourage asylum seekers who do not have a valid residence permit to return to their ...

The EU-Turkey Refugee Deal is Costly – Especially for the Refugees

Posted by Pinar Tank & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Thursday, 7 April 2016

The agreement reflects the EU’s self-interest just as much as Turkey’s, but takes little account of the interests and rights of the refugees. On Friday 18 March, Turkey and the EU concluded a deal designed to put an end to refugees’ use of the sea route to travel from Turkey to Greece, because the route is costing too many lives, and because the EU and Turkey want to get the flood of refugees under control. The majority of the refugees and migrants who have arrived in Europe in recent months have travelled via this route. The EU’s website claims that ...

Seeing Flight as a Non-violent Option: One Way to Change the Discourse about the World’s 60 Million Refugees

Posted by Erica Chenoweth & Hakim Young on Wednesday, 3 February 2016

Today, one in every 122 humans living on the planet is a refugee, an internally displaced person, or an asylum-seeker. In 2014, conflict and persecution forced a staggering 42,500 persons per day to leave their homes and seek protection elsewhere, resulting in 59.5 million total refugees worldwide. According to the UN refugee agency’s 2014 Global Trends report (tellingly entitled World at War), developing countries hosted 86% of these refugees. Developed countries, such as the U.S. and those in Europe, host only 14% of the world’s total share of refugees. Yet public sentiment in the West has been tough on refugees ...

Somalia’s Hope for the Future? The Return of Young Diaspora Somalis

Posted by Cindy Horst on Monday, 30 November 2015

The Somali conflict has affected Somali citizens inside and outside the Somali region for over 25 years. While Somaliland and Puntland have enjoyed relative stability for more than two decades, conditions are much more fragile in south-central Somalia, and residents in many parts of the Somali region face considerable levels of insecurity still. In late 2012, however, the first permanent central government since the start of the civil war was installed in Mogadishu. This increased expectations that south-central Somalia is transitioning towards greater stability and created hope amongst the Somali diaspora. Since 2011-2012, the number of people returning to south-central ...

Pakistan’s Crippling Energy Crisis and Increasing Remittances

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Zain Ul Abdin on Thursday, 1 October 2015

Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems. This summer CNBC run a report titled Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems after more than a thousand people died during heatwaves during the first days of Ramadan. Insufficient preparedness for the heatwave is largely seen as the cause of deaths, yet the context of the protracted electricity crisis in Pakistan is also widely connected with the scale of deaths and hospitalization during this summer’s heatwave. Pakistan’s energy crisis has worsened over the past few years, with increasing gaps between electricity supply and demand in the country. The crisis has been reported on in ...

Refugees are Also Migrants. And All Migrants Matter

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 7 September 2015

The recent debate over word choice has taken turns that undermine humanitarian principles and cloud the view of how migration is unfolding. The Washington Post, the New York Times, the Guardian, the BBC, and others have examined the usage of ‘refugees’ versus ‘migrants’ over the past week. The general impression is that ‘migrants’ are being thrown to the wolves. The most insidious contribution, sadly, comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). But first, the origins of the current debate: in mid-August 2015, Al Jazeera announced that the network will no longer refer to ‘migrants’ in the Mediterranean. ...

Return Migration: Pakistan as a Return Migration Destination

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 24 August 2015

Return migration to Pakistan is diverse. It ranges from return mobilities of naturalized citizens and those born abroad to so-called ‘voluntary assisted returns’ and deportations of migrants without regular status. Pakistan receives returnees from the Middle East, as well as from Europe and North America, which reflects broader Pakistani migration patterns. This policy brief explores the multiplicity of return migration to Pakistan. From a return destination perspective, it presents some of the dilemmas faced when governing return migration. Return migration to Pakistan is extremely diverse; legal status and citizenship are important distinctions among returnees. Pakistanis abroad account for about 4 ...

Return Migration: Polish Migrants to Norway

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 24 August 2015

How do Polish Migrants in Norway Consider Return Migration?  After Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 and the substantial emigration that followed, return migration was an expectation widely shared by observers in Poland and abroad. Return migration has been modest, however, even in the wake of the 2008-2009 financial crisis. Due to the post-accession migration wave, Poles comprise the largest immigrant group in Norway. Although Polish migrants in Norway were also expected to stay for short periods of time, they are for the most part not returning to Poland. This Policy Brief explores why, presenting five common perspectives ...

Becoming One of Us: The Politics of Citizenship in France, Norway and the UK

Posted by Cathrine Talleraas & Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 5 August 2015

Citizenship and naturalization legislation in France, Norway, and the UK has changed substantially more during the 2000s than in previous decades. In which areas of citizenship policy have changes occurred? And how do these changes relate to the trend of reinvigorating the citizenship institution to increase social cohesion? This blog post is an exerpt from a Policy Brief from the research project ‘Negotiating the nation: Implications of ethnic and religious diversity for national identity’ (NATION). Citizenship legislation in France, Norway, and the UK has changed more in the 2000s than previously. Countering terrrorism and striving for social cohesion are two ...

Contestations over National Identity and Diversity: An analysis of French and British media debates in the autumn 2014

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Cathrine Talleraas on Tuesday, 28 July 2015

How and when is national identity and nationhood debated, and what does this reveal about the boundaries of national identity? Drawing on analyses of opinion pieces from French and British newspapers, we examine how national identity is debated, contested and challenged in light of national and international news events during the autumn of 2014. This blog post is based on a Policy Brief from the research project ‘Negotiating the nation: Implications of ethnic and religious diversity for national identity’ (NATION). National identity is an embedded theme in public debates, spurred by events and societal change, but also often abstract and ...

Most Muslims Celebrate Eid

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Thursday, 16 July 2015

Now that Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting, is ending, most Muslims – in Oslo, as elsewhere in the world – celebrate the festival of Eid. It is a time for celebration. For many Muslims, it is also a time to help those less well-off than themselves, either through the annual “religious tax” zakat or through other forms of charity. Muslims in Oslo are engaged in a range of charitable, humanitarian and development efforts. We have learned about these through our research over the past four years, exploring development involvement in Pakistan and beyond, among the Pakistani diaspora. However, charitable ...

Equality in North-South Research Collaboration

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal, Anum Amjad, Qamar Zaman Bodla & Asma Rubab on Thursday, 2 July 2015

Research collaboration across Global South-North divides is an articulated aim in many academic institutions. In this blog we point to the value added, as well as some of the challenges of such collaboration, based on our experiences from collaborative research on migration and transnationalism in Pakistan and Norway. We are writing this blog post as our co-authored article appears on ‘early view’ ahead of publication in the journal Population, Space and Place. Our article is the result of longstanding collaboration between us, as young researchers. In this blog post we reflect on our experience of research collaboration, and the challenges ...

Back in Business? Diaspora Return to Somalia

Posted by Cindy Horst on Thursday, 18 June 2015

In most post-conflict contexts, returning diaspora members contribute to reconstruction efforts; including through investments in businesses. While many invest in traditional ventures, others introduce new ideas for entrepreneurship. In Somalia, diaspora businesses are visible and valued; especially for their development and peacebuilding potential. The conflict has affected Somali citizens inside and outside the Somali region for over 25 years. With the cautious optimism about developments in south-central Somalia in the last few years, however, we see the number of people returning to the region increasing considerably. Full daily flights into Mogadishu offered by Turkish Airlines attest to this. Returning for ...

ASEAN’s Rohingya Challenge: Can ASEAN fail to act and yet be a Community?

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Wednesday, 17 June 2015

A human tragedy has been unfolding in the Bay of Bengal. Thousands of poor Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees and job seekers have been the victims of xenophobia, cynical smugglers and incapable governance. What has ASEAN done? So far very little. Yet this crisis is exactly the kind of non-traditional trans-national security challenge that ASEAN must cope with if it means seriously its ambition to form a peaceful “ASEAN Community” by December 2015. The exodus of refugees and job seekers from Myanmar and Bangladesh presents an acute challenge for ASEAN Four member countries are directly involved: Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia ...

The Child Welfare Services in Norway and Migration

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 17 June 2015

The recent demonstrations against Norway’s Child Welfare Service (Barnevernet), in Oslo and outside Norwegian embassies abroad, express the deep frustration and fear felt by some parents with immigrant background. In recent years this frustration has received increased attention both in Norway and internationally. The international diplomatic repercussions of this crisis of confidence between the Child Welfare Service and families with immigrant background reveal how this is not purely a domestic matter, although it concerns children in Norway. Frode Forfang, director general of the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration, is concerned about the involvement of the Child Welfare Service with asylum seekers, ...

Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption

Posted by Jørgen Carling, Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel on Thursday, 11 June 2015

International migration and corruption have several things in common: they play key roles in development processes, feature prominently on policy agendas, and are the subject of large research literatures. However, the connections between migration and corruption, whether in the country of origin or along migration trajectories, remain relatively unexplored. The migration-corruption nexus has important implications for migrants, policymakers, practitioners, and local communities affected by emigration and immigration. Although focused attention to corruption remains rare in migration research, corruption frequently comes up as a topic because it affects people’s lives. For instance, one of the studies that inspired this article set ...

A Close Look at Border Security in the Mediterranean

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Monday, 1 June 2015

The EU’s response to the increased flow of refugees crossing the Mediterranean has been to boost border security by means of Operation Triton, which is the responsibility of Frontex, the EU border agency. There is little one can do, however, to impose effective border controls at sea. Operation Triton does not have a search-and-rescue mandate, even though it is for search-and-rescue that surveillance has the greatest potential to play a positive role. In the fear that search-and-rescue capacity would make it slightly easier for boat refugees to reach Europe, border surveillance operations are being promoted as a more “effective” response. ...

The Matrix of Attachment: Immigrant Integration and Transnationalism

Posted by Jørgen Carling & Silje Vatne Pettersen on Friday, 29 May 2015

Immigrants typically have attachments in two directions: to the country in which they live, and to their country of origin. These attachments are often discussed in terms of integration and transnationalism, respectively. A new conceptual framework, which we call the matrix of attachment, enables us to examine immigrant integra-tion and transnationalism simultaneously. This perspective, we argue, can inspire more nuanced analyses and policy development. We use this framework to analyze variations in attachment among immigrants in Norway. Immigrant integration and transnationalism are neither related in a fixed way nor independent of each other. A substantial proportion of immigrants have weak ...

On becoming Norwegian

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Thursday, 28 May 2015

In May 2015, one of Norway’s leading daily newspapers, Aftenposten, launched a series of profiles titled #JegErNorsk (#IAmNorwegian). One is of Slavomir, who has made his everyday life easier by changing his name to Stian. Another is of Tara, who feels at her least Norwegian on Norway’s national day, when – with her immigrant background and lack of the traditional Norwegian costume – she senses that other people do not see her as Norwegian. Finally there is Aon, who is frustrated about depictions in the Norwegian media of immigrants and Muslims. Each of these young people, in his or her ...

Can Afghans Reintegrate after Assisted Return from Europe?

Posted by Ceri Oeppen & Nassim Majidi on Friday, 22 May 2015

Governments present the assisted return of rejected asylum seekers and other ‘unwanted’ migrants as the cornerstone of an effective migration management policy. However, it is also a practice criticised by migrants’ rights advocates for being a form of coerced, rather than voluntary, return. One response to critiques is to highlight the potential such programmes have in the successful reintegration of returnees. But what is meant by ‘successful’ reintegration? Based on research in Afghanistan with returnees from Norway and the United Kingdom, we highlight the extreme difficulties faced in achieving reintegration. Most Afghan research participants did not want to return to ...

What Would Have Been New about Bombing Migrant Boats?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Wednesday, 13 May 2015

The European Union has made it clear that bombs were not part of the plan for war against people smuggling after all. “No one is thinking of bombing,” said Federica Mogherini, EU foreign policy chief, yesterday. The alleged plans for bombing had already caused widespread alarm and protest. But what would have been new about bombing the boats that might have  ferried migrants and refugees across the Mediterranean? On the one hand, such action would have been unprecedented and dramatic — the ultimate militarization of migration control. On the other hand, it would simply have been another mode of a well-established ...

Humanitarianism and Return

Posted by Cindy Horst & Tove Heggli Sagmo on Monday, 4 May 2015

Humanitarianism and Return: Compromising Protection In many contexts around the world, states use funding for humanitarian programming as an active part of their attempts to manage populations displaced by conflict. Humanitarian aid to refugees and internally displaced is commonly understood as a temporary activity that ends when people will return home. Yet returnees can often not be provided with protection and ‘return’ for many entails a first encounter with a new place. In a recent policy brief we argue that humanitarian organizations have the responsibility to analyze the long-term security implications of their decisions on where to provide aid. Return ...

Unlikely Partners: The EU-Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative

Posted by Cindy Horst & Maimuna Mohamud on Wednesday, 22 April 2015

Should the EU cooperate with regional states to manage and control migration from the Horn of Africa? Proponents of greater migration control within the EU increasingly favor the use of political and economic incentives as an approach to prevent migration from the Horn of Africa and elsewhere, effectively through increasingly externalizing border control. While the unfolding humanitarian disaster in the Mediterranean shows the urgency of finding creative solutions, we argue that the solution does not lie in cooperating with states that create refugees or cannot guarantee to uphold the non-refoulement principle that EU countries have signed up for in the ...

A Burden no one Wants to Share: Why do Refugees from the Horn of Africa try to Cross into Europe?

Posted by Cindy Horst & Maimuna Mohamud on Tuesday, 21 April 2015

The humanitarian crisis in the Mediterranean, with staggering high numbers of deaths of asylum seekers and migrants attempting to cross by sea, shows the urgency of an alternative approach to Europe’s current border policies. Across the EU, mounting internal political pressures have intensified debates about migration and asylum, encouraging policies devised to restrict and control asylum and migration. These policies do not prevent people – many of whom originate from the Horn of Africa – from trying to cross the Mediterranean. In 2014, Eritreans composed the second largest migrant group to Europe, after the Syrians, reaching 34,320 according to the ...

An Uncertain Future in Afghanistan

Posted by Arne Strand on Thursday, 26 March 2015

Under the tripartite agreement entered into between Afghanistan, Norway and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Afghans who are refused asylum in Norway have two choices: either to take advantage of the assisted repatriation programme; or to reject this offer and risk being forcibly deported and returned to Kabul almost empty handed. The two groups return home under very different circumstances. Refugees on the assisted repatriation programme receive a cash sum on arrival in Kabul, and may apply for rent support for a limited period. They are also entitled to six months’ financial support in order to establish a ...

How Migration Spurs Battles over Women

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Tuesday, 10 March 2015

(This post was originally published on Jørgen Carling’s personal web site.) Migration affects the lives of women in many ways. One subtle but critical mechanism lies in disputes over ‘who’ migrant women are. Migration researchers can play a role in making the battles apparent and showing how they matter. I have collected fifteen articles that have inspired me to write this post. I’ll mention them as I write, highlighting what I think they bring to our understanding of battles over women in the context of migration. You’ll find the abstract and full reference for each article at the end of ...

Always an Immigrant, Never Norwegian

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Wednesday, 4 February 2015

Immigrants have become integrated into Norwegian society with degrees of success that range between two possible extremes: strong attachment and total alienation. In debates about integration, ethnicity and country of origin are often claimed to be the key factors for determining whether or not integration will be successful. Other important factors are seen as secondary. This contributes to the one-track nature of debates about integration. The significance of time Politicians, the media and researchers tend to focus on where a person “is from”. But in our research on migration – including in particular the relative strength of an immigrant’s sense ...

Why Assisted Return Programmes Must Be Evaluated

Posted by Erlend Paasche on Friday, 30 January 2015

Rejected asylum seekers often resist the legal obligation to return. Consequently, European policy makers tasked with migration managament have turned to so-called ‘Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration programmes’ (AVRRs) to incentivize return to and support reintegration in the country of origin. Such programmes are described as less politically costly, more humane, simpler and cheaper than deportation. But with very limited monitoring and evaluation of AVRRs we know little about how well they work and whether the promised support is given. In a recent policy brief, I outline some of the compelling reasons to monitor and evaluate AVRRs. Assisted Voluntary Return ...

Foreign Helpers

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Friday, 19 December 2014

While a small number of young Norwegian Muslims have travelled to Syria to join militant groups as “foreign fighters”, far greater numbers of young Muslims are supporting humanitarian efforts. Most media attention is focused on young people travelling abroad to fight, rather than on young people’s humanitarian work. Throughout the autumn, aid organizations and groups of individuals have been collecting winter clothing, footwear, sleeping bags and blankets. With winter closing in, the situation is precarious and there is great enthusiasm for collecting clothes and blankets to send to civilians both in Syria itself and in refugee camps in the region. ...

Where is My Home?

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Friday, 5 December 2014

Considerations about return are a persistent dimension of identity work in migrant populations. The question of where and what constitutes ‘home’ for migrants is central to understanding processes of integration in settlement contexts. Simultaneously, where and what constitutes ‘home’ sheds light on motivations for sustained transnational ties, but also on return considerations, ranging from planning and actually returning, to an ongoing myth of future return, or a decision of staying put. Reflections about ‘home’ are indicative of individuals’ senses of belonging. Migrants reflections about the possibility of return migration are revealing of where and how these individuals locate ‘home’ in ...

Norway's Outdated Citizenship Legislation

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Tove Heggli Sagmo on Monday, 20 October 2014

The war in Syria, the threat of Islamic radicalisation, and fears that terrorists may recruit Norwegian citizens have sparked renewed debate about Norway’s citizenship legislation. Meanwhile, another debate continues to be forgotten: We call for a reopening of the debate on dual citizenship, as Norway’s antiquated legislation is out of step with that of its Nordic neighbours. Both debates are important, and both should be addressed now. But these are two separate debates. A U-turn in Denmark This summer Denmark decided to permit dual citizenship. This means that Norway is the only Nordic country to persist in banning it. A ...

Women and Public Life in the Somali Region

Posted by Maimuna Mohamud on Tuesday, 14 October 2014

Somali women are often perceived as a homogenous social group perpetually living in destitution as victims of mutilation, sexual exploitation, famine, and war. Whilst we must not ignore atrocities committed against them, it is important to demonstrate that Somali women are not passive victims, and to not disregard a history replete with stories of extraordinary women. There is a lack of awareness of the remarkable Somali women who have refused to accept patriarchy, and who have fought for women’s rights to engage actively and equally as stakeholders in Somali society. The diversity of Somali women’s experiences within society — as ...

Refugees are a Shared Responsibility

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Tuesday, 23 September 2014

A record number of refugees have arrived by boat in southern Europe this summer. Norway should voice its support for a common European solution to the issue of boat migrants crossing the Mediterranean. Last year this would have been front-page news, but now each new arrival – or each refugee boat that is lost at sea – is just one more in a series. Estimates suggest that more than 100,000 refugees have arrived by boat so far this year. This is a dramatic figure. The previous record was 63,000 for the whole of 2011, which was the year the Arab ...

Filipino Migration is Extraordinary

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Sunday, 3 August 2014

The population of the Philippines is surpassing 100 million in late July 2014. That’s a reminder of the country’s importance in global migration. Emigration generally has the strongest impacts in countries with relatively small populations, such as El Salvador, Armenia and Samoa. In fact, as the scatterplot shows, only five countries have remittance inflows representing at least 10 % of GDP and a population of at least 10 million people. Among them only Bangladesh and — as of July 2014 — the Philippines have populations of 100 million or more. The Philippines has a particular position also in research on ...

Muslim Charity for the Poor

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 28 July 2014

Fasting and celebration At this time Muslims all over the world are celebrating Eid – Islam’s most important religious festival. Eid marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. After the Eid prayer, families and friends gather to celebrate. This is a time for dressing in fine clothing, eating well, and giving gifts to children. In fact, it is not unlike Christmas. During Eid, it is customary for everyone who can afford it to donate a sum of money, zakat-al-fitr, so that the poor will also be able to eat their fill during the festival. These donations are often ...

Invisible Aid

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Kaja Borchgrevink on Friday, 4 July 2014

Muslims pay 15 times more “religious tax” than the rest of the world gives in humanitarian aid. Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, has just started. A time of fasting for devout Muslims, this is also the time of year when most Muslims pay their annual zakat. Zakat is a form of compulsory almsgiving, a kind of “religious tax.” The amount due is 2.5 per cent of a Muslim’s wealth at the start of Ramadan, subject to a minimum threshold. The Koran contains clear rules about who is eligible to receive zakat: in general, these are people who ...

Unintended Effects of Norway’s Readmission Agreement with Ethiopia

Posted by Cathrine Talleraas & Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 18 June 2014

The main purpose of migration policy is to affect migration flows. Sometimes, however, policies have other, unintended effects. Such consequences are easily overlooked in policy evaluations, which usually focus on the effectiveness of a given policy in terms of its intended aim. This Policy Brief analyses the outcome of Norway’s readmission agreement with Ethiopia. Two years after the signing of that agreement, it is clear that its various effects provide a new avenue for reflecting on migration policies in general, and on readmission agreements in particular. Read more in today’s Op Ed (in Norwegian), published at Ytring.no: Stillheten om retur ...

The Unintended Consequences of Education among Pakistani Migrants to the UK

Posted by Marta Bolognani on Tuesday, 10 June 2014

The field of education has been at the forefront of social policy concerns for at least three decades in the UK. The debate around integration and education revolves mainly around two aspects: the ability of migrants to integrate, depending on their level of education; and the challenges brought by migrants to the British education system. Based on PREMIG data from among Pakistani migrants and descendants in the UK it is clear that education is indeed a major field in which issues of integration are explored, negotiated and can either get stuck or resolved. However, the PREMIG data suggests that individuals ...

On Distance and Proximity

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Thursday, 31 October 2013

On July 22nd 2011, I was home from work when I heard a loud blast. It sounded like thunder. Strange that I had not seen any lightning, with a sound this loud, I thought before carrying on with household chores. Half an hour later I took a break, logging onto Facebook. ‘Explosion in Oslo, it’s on TV2!’, a friend’s status said. The TV images seemed unreal. There were familiar images of places I frequently passed, shred into the unrecognizable. The police was asking journalists and others to evacuate the area – in my language, not a foreign language spoken by ...

Complexities and Challenges in Afghan migration?

Posted by Ceri Oeppen on Tuesday, 25 June 2013

If you look at the return programs organized by European governments (usually in partnership with the IOM) you will notice that return and reintegration are often mentioned together, as if they always coincide. However, reintegration (however it is defined) does not automatically follow return. Also, how ‘success’ in reintegration assistance is defined differs: is it where those assisted do not re-migrate? Or, as I would argue, reintegration is a multi-dimensional process that involves (re)negotiating membership in a variety of different spheres of society (economic, political, social, and cultural). In a high mobility society like Afghanistan, with a ‘culture of migration’, ...

'Maybe someday I’ll return…'

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Tuesday, 25 June 2013

The ‘super-diversity’ case-study in the PREMIG project was, unlike the other five case-studies, not defined around a country of origin. Instead we defined it based on temporal dimensions, by interviewing people who had either come to Norway during their childhood, before turning 14, or recently, in the past 1-5 years. This was, more than anything, an experiment. And the data that came out of the experiment confirm the importance of time-related factors in migrants’ understandings of settlement processes and return considerations. The data high-light that there are many similarities in migrants’ reflections on return and settlement, across their countries of origin. The ...

Public Trust in the State

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Saturday, 22 December 2012

For a society such as the Norwegian one, public trust in the state is a cornerstone. But what happens when that trust is lacking? In several cases over the past year (2012), the involvement of Norway’s Child Protection Service (“Barnevernet”) with families of immigrant background has been the subject of heated debate. The rights and wrongs of Barnevernet’s actions in individual cases are impossible for the general public to evaluate on the basis of media reports. For very good reasons, Barnevernet is subject to a duty of confidentiality in the child’s best interests. Despite an intense desire for more information, ...

Give Us Your Phone and We May Grant You Asylum

Posted by Rocco Bellanova, Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Raphael Gellert on Monday, 17 October 2016

Images of refugees using smartphones have now become common in the Western media landscape, and everybody seems to have learned that refugees and migrants, too, use smartphones. Indicative of this awareness, European governments are now looking into how to make use of these assets in their identity checks and in the processing of asylum seekers’ demands. As such, smartphones are not just a key tool for surviving long and dangerous journeys, but also an asset that makes anyone using it more vulnerable to digital surveillance. In this blog post, we discuss how smartphones are becoming the new best and worst ...