Migration

Coordinator: Jørgen Carling

​​​​​​​The Migration research group addresses central theoretical aspects of migration and transnationalism, and the ways in which these phenomena are connected with peace and conflict. We seek to understand migration processes, the transnational ties created after migration, and their consequences for individuals and societies.

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​Migration and transnationalism interact with situations of peace and conflict in a number of ways. Many migration flows are caused by armed conflict, diasporas may play a role in the perpetuation or resolution of conflicts, and finding solutions for refugee populations may be fundamental to establishing a lasting peace.

Migration and migrants' transnational ties may be significant for societies of origin. In many communities across the world, links with migrants abroad is a main aspect of global connectedness. In societies of settlement, too, immigration and transnationalism affect the ways in which peaceful coexistence is possible, and how identity and citizenship are negotiated and experienced.

Furthermore, migration pressures and security concerns have contributed to the militarization of migration control and the erosion of humanitarian principles. Migration research is not only concerned with the people who move but also with those who experience hardship because they are prevented from moving. ​

Topics that we have addressed include the following:

  • Citizenship and civic engagement
  • Connections between integration and transnationalism
  • Cultural representations of migration
  • Diversity and national identity
  • Migrant remittances
  • Migrant smuggling
  • Migration aspirations and migration processes
  • Migration policies and politics
  • Refugee livelihoods
  • Religion, migration and transnationalism
  • Return migration
  • Transnational families

Projects

Current Projects

Past Projects

Research Group News

Upcoming Events

Past Events

Publications

Recent publications

Kolås, Åshild (2017) How critical is the event? Multicultural Norway after 22 July 2011, Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture 23(2): 1–15.
Horst, Cindy (2017) Making a difference in Mogadishu? Experiences of multi-sited embeddedness among diaspora youth, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1354161#_i4: 1–16.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Expert Panellist Statement on the Smuggling of Migrants, Fifth Informal Thematic Session in the process towards a Global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. Vienna: Office of the President of the General Assembly, United Nations.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2017) Descent, birthplace and residence: Aligning principles of citizenship with realities of migrant transnationalism, Norwegian Journal of Geography. DOI: 10.1080/00291951.2017.1369456.
Stokke, Kristian & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) Political geographies of citizenship (Introduction to special issue), Norwegian Journal of Geography. DOI: 10.1080/00291951.2017.1359207.
Buxrud, Bjørnar & Katrine Fangen (2017) Norwegian national day oratory: constructing and reconstructing a national we, Nations and Nationalism 23(4): 770–789.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Marek Pawlak (2017) Reproducing, transforming and contesting gender relations and identities through migration and transnational ties, Gender, Place and Culture. DOI: 10.1080/0966369X.2017.1372378.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) With faith in development: Organizing transnational Islamic charity, Progress in Development Studies 17(3): 214–228.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) Muslimsk medmenneseklighet [Muslim compassion], Dagbladet, 30 June.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Ceri Oeppen (2017) Forced to return? Agency and the role of post-return mobility for wellbeing among returnees to Afghanistan, Pakistan and Poland, in Vathi, Zana; & Russell King, eds, Return Migration and Wellbeing: Discourses, Policy-Making and Outcomes for Migrants and Their Families. Abingdon: Routledge.

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Kolås, Åshild (2017) How critical is the event? Multicultural Norway after 22 July 2011, Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture 23(2): 1–15.
Horst, Cindy (2017) Making a difference in Mogadishu? Experiences of multi-sited embeddedness among diaspora youth, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1354161#_i4: 1–16.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2017) Descent, birthplace and residence: Aligning principles of citizenship with realities of migrant transnationalism, Norwegian Journal of Geography. DOI: 10.1080/00291951.2017.1369456.
Buxrud, Bjørnar & Katrine Fangen (2017) Norwegian national day oratory: constructing and reconstructing a national we, Nations and Nationalism 23(4): 770–789.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Marek Pawlak (2017) Reproducing, transforming and contesting gender relations and identities through migration and transnational ties, Gender, Place and Culture. DOI: 10.1080/0966369X.2017.1372378.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) With faith in development: Organizing transnational Islamic charity, Progress in Development Studies 17(3): 214–228.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Visualizing the transnational connections of China’s most African neighbourhood, Environment and Planning a. DOI: 10.1177/0308518X17690392.
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) Do we have to agree? Accommodating unity in diversity in post-terror Norway, Ethnicities. DOI: 10.1177/1468796816684145.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Aleksandra Lewicki (2016) Moving citizens: Citizenship practices among Polish migrants in Norway and the United Kingdom, Social Identities 22(1): 112–128.
Bygnes, Susanne & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Liquid migration, grounded lives: considerations about future mobility and settlement among Polish and Spanish migrants in Norway, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 43(1): 102–118.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kaja Borchgrevink (2016) Transnational Islamic charity as everyday rituals, Global Networks. DOI: 10.1111/glob.12137.
Fangen, Katrine & Åshild Kolås (2016) The "Syria traveller": Reintegration or legal sanctioning?, Critical Studies on Terrorism 9(3): 414–432.
Paasche, Erlend (2016) The role of corruption in reintegration: experiences of Iraqi Kurds upon return from Europe, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42(7): 1076–1093.
Bolognani, Marta & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Return Imaginaries and Political Climate: Comparing Thinking About Return Mobilities Among Pakistani Origin Migrants and Descendants in Norway and the UK, Journal of International Migration and Integration 18(1): 353–367.
Horst, Cindy & Anab Nur (2016) Governing Mobility through Humanitarianism in Somalia: Compromising Protection for the Sake of Return, Development and Change 47(3): 542–562.
Bell, Justyna & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Limited but enduring transnational ties? Transnational family life among Polish migrants in Norway, Polish Diaspora Review (Studia Migracyjne – Przegląd Polonijny) 157(3): 77–98.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Anum Amjad; Qamar Bodla & Asma Rubab (2015) Going Back to Pakistan for Education? The Interplay of Return Mobilities, Education, and Transnational Living, Population, Space and Place 22(8): 836–848.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) 'Where are you from' or 'when did you come'? Temporal dimensions in migrants' reflections about settlement and return, Ethnic and Racial Studies 38(7): 1202–1217.
Horst, Cindy & katarzyna grabska (2015) Flight and Exile—Uncertainty in the Context of Conflict-induced displacement, Social Analysis: Journal of Cultural and Social Practice 59(1): 1–18.
Sinatti, Giulia & Cindy Horst (2015) Migrants as agents of development: Diaspora engagement discourse and practice in Europe, Ethnicities 15(1): 134–152.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) ‘This is My Home’: Pakistani and Polish Migrants’ Return Considerations as Articulations About ‘Home’, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 361–384.
Brown, Richard; Jørgen Carling; Sonja Fransen & Melissa Siegel (2014) Measuring remittances through surveys: Methodological and conceptual issues for survey designers and data analysts, Demographic Research 31: 1243–1274.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2014) Return Migration Intentions in the Integration–Transnationalism Matrix, International Migration 52(6): 13–30.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2014) Beyond the Insider–Outsider Divide in Migration Research, Migration Studies 2(1): 36–54.
Fangen, Katrine & Mari Vaage (2014) FrP-politikeres innvandringsretorikk i posisjon og opposisjon, Agora: Journal for metafysisk spekulasjon 3(4): 30–63.
Carling, Jørgen (2014) Scripting Remittances: Making Sense of Money Transfers in Transnational Relationships, International Migration Review 48: 218–262.
Sagmo, Tove Heggli (2014) Return Visits as a Marker of Differentiation in the Social Field, Mobilities 10(4): 649–665.
Demetriou, Olga (2014) 'Struck by the Turks': Reflections on Armenian Refugeehood in Cyprus, Patterns of Prejudice 48(2): 167–181.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2014) Split Return: Transnational Household Strategies in Afghan Repatriation, International Migration 52(6): 57–71.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Hudson, Heidi & Henning Melber (2014) Contextualising African Identities, Othering and the Politics of Space, Africa Insight 44(1): 1–6.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2013) Migrant Transnationalism and Multi-Layered Integration: Norwegian-Pakistani Migrants’ Own Reflections, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 983–999.
Carling, Jørgen & Kristian Hoelscher (2013) The Capacity and Desire to Remit: Comparing Local and Transnational Influences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 939–958.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Ceri Oeppen (2013) Migrant Balancing Acts: Understanding the Interactions Between Integration and Transnationalism, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 867–884.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) 'A Place to Stay in Pakistan': Why Migrants Build Houses in their Country of Origin, Population, Space and Place 18(5): 629–641.
Hernández-Carretero, María & Jørgen Carling (2012) Beyond "Kamikaze Migrants": Risk Taking in West African Boat Migration to Europe, Human Organization 71(4): 407–416.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2012) The Transnationalization of the Taliban, International Area Studies Review 15(3): 203–229.
Carling, Jørgen; Cecilia Menjívar & Leah Schmalzbauer (2012) Central Themes in the Study of Transnational Parenthood, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 191–217.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Who is the money for? Remittances within and beyond the household in Pakistan, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 21(4): 437–458.
Paasche, Erlend & Katrine Fangen (2012) Transnational Involvement: Reading Quantitative Studies in Light of Qualitative Data, International Journal of Population Research. DOI: 10.1155/2012/580819: 1–12.
Åkesson, Lisa; Jørgen Carling & Heike Drotbohm (2012) Mobility, Moralities and Motherhood: Navigating the Contingencies of Cape Verdean Lives, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 237–260.
Carling, Jørgen & María Hernández Carretero (2011) Protecting Europe and Protecting Migrants? Strategies for Managing Unauthorised Migration from Africa, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 13(1): 42–58.
Singh, Narpinder; Are Hugo Pripp; Torkel Brekke & Babill Stray-Pedersen (2010) Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 10(40).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kristian Stokke (2009) Contributing to Development? Transnational Activities among Tamils in Norway, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 18(3): 397–418.
Carling, Jørgen & Lisa Åkesson (2009) Mobility at the Heart of a Nation: Patterns and Meanings of Cape Verdean Migration, International Migration 47(3): 123–155.
Fadnes, Ellen & Cindy Horst (2009) Responses to Internal Displacement in Colombia: Guided by What Principles?, Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees 26(1): 111–120.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Human Dynamics of Migrant Transnationalism, Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(8): 1452–1477.
Horst, Cindy (2008) The Transnational Political Engagements of Refugees: Remittance Sending Practices amongst Somalis in Norway, Conflict, Security and Development 8(3): 31–339.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Toward a Demography of Immigrant Communities and Their Transnational Potential, International Migration Review 42(2): 449–475.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Determinants of Migrant Remittances, Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24(3): 582–599.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Unauthorized migration from Africa to Spain, International Migration 45(4): 3–37.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Borders, International Migration Review 41(2): 316–343.
Horst, Cindy (2006) Refugee livelihoods: Continuity and Transformations, Refugee Survey Quarterly 25(2): 6–22.
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2005) On the Edge of the Chinese Diaspora: The Surge of Baihuo Business in an African City, Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 639–662.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders, Population, Space and Place 10(2): 113–132.
Carling, Jørgen (2003) Cartographies of Cape Verdean transnationalism, Global Networks 3(4): 533–539.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: Theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(1): 5–42.

PhD Thesis

Sagmo, Tove Heggli (2016) Return Migration and Social Change: Creating Distinctions in the Social Field. PhD thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography , University of Oslo, Oslo.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Transnational ties and belonging: Remittances from Pakistani migrants in Norway. PhD thesis, Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Transnationalism in the Context of Restrictive Immigration Policy. PhD thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Monograph

Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2009) Social Networks and Migration in Wartime Afghanistan. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Book Chapter

Erdal, Marta Bivand & Ceri Oeppen (2017) Forced to return? Agency and the role of post-return mobility for wellbeing among returnees to Afghanistan, Pakistan and Poland, in Vathi, Zana; & Russell King, eds, Return Migration and Wellbeing: Discourses, Policy-Making and Outcomes for Migrants and Their Families. Abingdon: Routledge.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) Circulation of ideas and practices of Islamic charity in the transnational social field spanning Europe and Pakistan, in Nowicka, Magdalena ; & Vojin Šerbedžija, eds, Migration and Social Remittances in a Global Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (259–280).
Carling, Jørgen (2016) Trajectórias transnacionais de mães e crianças nas famílias cabo-verdanas [Mother-child trajectories in Cape Verdean transnational families], in Furtado, Cláudio Alves; Pierre-Joseph Laurent; & Iolanda Évora, eds, As Ciências Sociais Em Cabo Verde. Praia: Edições Uni-CV (187–206).
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) Innenfra, utenfra og tredjeposisjoner? Refleksiv posisjonalitet i forskning blant katolikker i Norge [Insider, outsider or third positions? Reflexive positionality in research among Catholics in Norway], in Aschim, Anders; Olav Hovdelien; & Helje Kringlebotn Sødal, eds, Kristne migranter i Norden [Christian migrants in the Nordic countries]. Kristiansand: Portal.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2016) When Poland became the main country of birth among Catholics in Norway’: Exploring the interface of Polish migrants’ everyday narratives and Church responses to a rapid demographic re-constitution, in Pasura, Dominic ; & Marta Bivand Erdal, eds, Migration, Transnationalism and Catholicism: Global Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Pasura, Dominic & Marta Bivand Erdal (2016) Introduction: Migration, Transnationalism and Catholicism, in Pasura, Dominic ; & Marta Bivand Erdal, eds, Migration, Transnationalism and Catholicism: Global Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Carling, Jørgen (2016) West and Central Africa, in McAuliffe, Marie; & Frank Laczko, eds, Migrant Smuggling Data and Research: a Global Review of the Emerging Evidence Base. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (25–53).
Al-Sharmani, Mulki & Cindy Horst (2016) Marginal actors? Diaspora Somalis Negotiate Their Citizenship, in Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa; Päivi Harinen; & Ville-Samuli Haverinen, eds, Dislocations of Civic Cultural Borderlines: Methodological Nationalism, Transnational Reality and Cosmopolitan Dreams. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing (107–122).
Horst, Cindy; Sonia Pereira & Olivia Sheringham (2015) The Impact of Class on Feedback Mechanisms: Brazilian Migration to Norway, Portugal and the United Kingdom, in Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (90–112).
Horst, Cindy; Stephen Lubkemann & Robtel Pailey (2015) The Invisibility of a Third Humanitarian Domain, in Sezgin, Zeynep; & Dennis Dijkzeul, eds, The New Humanitarians In International Practice: Emerging Actors and Contested Principles. London: Routledge (213–231).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) Making and Breaking a Chain: Migrants’ Decisions about Helping Others Migrate, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (156–182).
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) The diaspora meets the ‘development industry’: Engaging Norwegian-Pakistanis in development back home, in Tan, Y.T.; & M. Rahman, eds, International Migration and Development In South Asia. Abingdon: Routledge (44–60).
Sagmo, Tove Heggli (2015) The role of social capital in post-conflict business development: perspectives from returning migrants in Burundi, in Africa's Return Migrants: the New Developers?. London: Zed Books (109–129).
Engbersen, Godfried; Erik Snel & Cindy Horst (2015) Beyond networks: Insights on feedback and mechanisms of the middle range, in Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (231–246).
Carling, Jørgen & Dominique Jolivet (2015) Exploring 12 Migration Corridors: Rationale, Methodology and Overview, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback in International MIgration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (18–46).
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) The social dynamics of remittance-receiving in Pakistan: Agency and opportunity among non-migrants in a transnational social field, in Migrant Remittances In South Asia Social, Economic and Political Implications. London: Palgrave Macmillan (115–134).
Montealegre, Jane; Antje Röder & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Formative assessment, data collection and parallell monitoring for RDS fieldwork, in Tyldum, Guri; & Lisa Johnston, eds, Applying Respondent Driven Sampling to Migrant Populations. Lessons from the Field. London: Palgrave Pivot (62–83).
Demetriou, Olga (2014) Situating Loss in the Greek-Turkish Encounter in Cyprus, in Vally Lytra, ed., When Greeks and Turks Meet: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Relationship Since 1923. Farnham: Ashgate (45–64).
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol & Cindy Horst (2014) Norwegian collaboration with diasporas, in Laakso, Liisa; & Petri Hautaniemi, eds, Diasporas, Development and Peacemaking in the Horn of Africa. London/New York: Zed Books.
Friberg, Jon Horgen & Cindy Horst (2014) RDS and the Structure of Migrant Populations, in Tyldum, Guri; & Lisa Johnston, eds, Applying Respondent Driven Sampling to Migrant Populations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Horst, Cindy (2013) International Aid to Refugees in Kenya: The Neglected Role of the Somali Diaspora, in Kane, Abdoulaye; & Todd Leedy, eds, African Migrations: Patterns and Perspectives. Indiana: Indiana University Press (195–210).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Ezzati (2013) Når ute også er hjemme. Migrasjon og utenrikspolitikk, in Weltzien, Åsmund; & Odd Mølster, eds, Norge Og Det Nye Verdenskartet. Oslo: Cappelen Damm (58–79).
Paasche, Erlend; Arne Strand & Are Knudsen (2013) War and Migration, in The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Lischer, Sarah (2013) Refugee Militancy in Exile and Upon Return in Afghanistan and Rwanda, in Jeffrey T. Checkel, ed., Transnational Dynamics of Civil War. Cambridge University Press (89–119).
Horst, Cindy(2012) The Livelihoods Approach Food Security Handbook. : Norwegian Refugee Council.
Naftalin, Mark(2012) Darfur The Oxford Companion to American Politics. : Oxford University Press(249–254).
Naftalin, Mark(2012) Darfur The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics. : Oxford University Press(273–278).
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Collecting, Analysing and Presenting Migration Histories, in Carlos Vargas-Silva, ed., Handbook of Research Methods in Migration. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing (137–162).
Horst, Cindy & Roger Zetter (2012) Chapter 2: Vulnerability and Protection: reducing risks and promoting security for forced migrants, in World Disaster Report 2012. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (46–79).
Carling, Jørgen (2011) The European Paradox of Unwanted Migration, in Burgess, J. Peter; & Serge Gutwirth, eds, A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration. Brussels: Brussels University Press (VUB) (33–46).
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol (2011) 'Alle ser på oss som utlendinger uansett': Selvbilder og andre bilder av unge menn med muslimsk bakgrunn etter 11. september 2001, in Eriksen, Thomas Hylland; & Hans Erik Næss, eds, Kulturell kompleksitet i det nye Norge. Oslo: Unipub (57–67).
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2010) The Return of the Refugee Warrior: Migration and Armed Resistance in Herat, in Schlenkhoff, Angela; & Ceri Oeppen, eds, Beyond the Wild Tribes: Understanding Modern Afghanistan and its Diaspora. London: (121–137).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands, in Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, Transnational Archipelago: Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora.. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (91–100).
Batalha, Luís & Jørgen Carling (2008) Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora, in Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, Transnational Archipelago: Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (13–32).
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2008) Mixed Fates of a Popular Minority: Chinese Migrants in Cape Verde, in Alden, Chris; Daniel Large; & Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, eds, China Returns to Africa: a Rising Power and a Continent Embrace. London: Hurst (319–338).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Interrogating Remittances: Core Questions for Deeper Insight and Better Policies, in Castles, Stephen; & Raúl Delgado Wise, eds, Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (43–64).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) 'Diaspora', 'Immigration', 'Emigration', 'Population', and 'Remittances', in Lobban, Jr., Richard A.; & Paul Khalil Saucier, eds, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Interrogar a las remesas: perguntas centrales para reflexiones más profundas y políticas más adecuadas [Interrogating remittances: core questions for deeper insight and better policies], in Castles, Stephen; & Raúl Delgado Wise, eds, Migración y desarrollo: perspectivas desde el sur. México D.F.: Miguel Angel Porrua (51–73).
Horst, Cindy (2007) The Somali Community in Minneapolis: Expectations and Realities, in From Mogadishu to Dixon: the Somali Diaspora in a Global Context. Trenton, NJ: .
Horst, Cindy (2007) The Role of Remittances in the Transnational Livelihood Strategies of Somalis, in Global Migration and Development. London: .
Horst, Cindy (2007) Connected Lives: Somalis in Minneapolis Dealing with Family Responsibilities and Migration Dreams of Relatives, in Somalia: Diaspora and State Reconstitution in the Horn of Africa. London: (89–101).
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Incorporating Insight from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances, in Migration, Remittances and Development. Paris: (289–296).

Edited Volume

Pasura, Dominic; & Marta Bivand Erdal, eds, (2016) Migration, Transnationalism and Catholicism: Global Perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, (2015) Beyond Networks: Feedback in International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, (2008) Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam.
Carling, Jørgen (ed.) (2002) Nordic demography: Trends and differentials. Oslo: Nordic Demographic Society. Scandinavian Population Studies.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Stokke, Kristian & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) Political geographies of citizenship (Introduction to special issue), Norwegian Journal of Geography. DOI: 10.1080/00291951.2017.1359207.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Aleksandra Lewicki (2016) Polish migration within Europe: mobility, transnationalism and integration, Social Identities 22(1): 1–9.
Carling, Jørgen; Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel (2015) Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption, Migration Information Source 5.
Horst, Cindy (2015) Somalia’s hope for the future? The return of young Diaspora Somalis, Horn of Africa Bulletin 27(5): 12–17.
Lee, Jennifer; Jørgen Carling & Pia Orrenius (2014) The International Migration Review at 50: Reflecting on Half a Century of International Migration Research and Looking Ahead, International Migration Review 48: 3–36.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Return Migration and Transnationalism: How Are the Two Connected?, International Migration 52(6): 2–12.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2014) Transnationalism in a Comparative Perspective: An Introduction, Comparative Migration Studies 2(3): 255–260.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) The Merits and Limitations of Spain's High-Tech Border Control, Migration Information Source.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Trafficking in Women from Nigeria to Europe, Migration Information Source.
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2005) Sie wagen und gewinnen. Chinesische Händler in Afrika. [They Dare and Win. Chinese Traders in Africa.], Der Überblick: Zeitschrift für ökumenische Begegnung und internationale Zusammenarbeit 41(4): 19–23.

Popular Article

Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2017) Muslimsk medmenneseklighet [Muslim compassion], Dagbladet, 30 June.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2017) Hvem godtar vi som «norske»? [Who do we accept as "Norwegian"?], Aftenposten, 14 March.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Mette Strømsø (2017) Hva er norskhet? [What is Norwegianness?], VG, 17 January.
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol (2016) Fellesskap i terrorens tid [A sense of community in times of terror], Dagsavisen, 20 July.
Sagmo, Tove Heggli; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Innvandringsdebatt på feil premisser [Wrong premises for the debate about immigration into Europe], NRK Ytring, 8 September.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Muslimer flest feirer id [Most Muslims Celebrate Eid], Dagbladet, 16 July.
Hatay, Mete (2015) 35. Paralel ve Göç Hareketleri [35th Paralel and Forced Migration], Poli, Havadis Newspaper, 21.6.2015, 21 June.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen & Cindy Horst (2015) En byrde ingen vil bære [A burden no one wants to bear], Dagsavisen, 16 June.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) Når foreldre frykter staten [When parents fear the state], Vårt Land, 6 June.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Når blir du norsk? [When do you become Norwegian?], Aftenposten, 8 May.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Evig innvandrer, aldri norsk [Eternal immigrant, never Norwegian], Bergens Tidende, 22 January.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Norske fremmedhjelpere [Foreign helpers], NRK Ytring, 19 December.
Jdid, Noor (2014) Ufrivillig tvangstrøye [Involuntary Straightjacket], Dagbladet, 12 November.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Nationalism Under Pressure: Islamic State, Iraq and Kurdistan, ISN Security Watch, 24 October.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2014) Avleggs statsborgerskapslov [Outdated citizenship legislation], Dagens Næringsliv, 6 October.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2014) Flytkningene er et felles ansvar [Refugees are a shared responsibility], NRK Ytring, 16 September.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Kan Irak fikses? [Can Iraq be fixed?], Dagsavisen, 29 August.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Vaklende løsrivelse [Faltering seccession], Morgenbladet, 22 August.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Nasjonalisme under press [Nationalism under pressure], Dagens Næringsliv, 11 August.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Muslimsk dugnad for de fattige [Muslim charity for the poor], VG, 28 July.
Talleraas, Cathrine & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Stillheten om retur til Etiopia [The silence about return to Ethiopia], Ytring, 18 June.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) En langvarig utfordring [A Long-Term Challenge], NRK Ytring.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2013) Den usynlige bistanden, Klassekampen, 11 July.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2013) Norge og det nye verdenskartet [Norway and the new world map], Dagsavisen, 22 May.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2013) Mindre norsk med to pass [Less Norwegian with two passports], Ytring, 24 March.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Tillit til staten [Confidence in the state], Dagbladet, .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg & Mark Naftalin (2012) Conflating Spaces: Syrian Rebels and Refugees in South Turkey, ISN Security Watch, 18 September.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg & Mark Naftalin (2012) Militarisering av flyktningene [Militarization amongst refugees], Dagsavisen, 29 August.
Horst, Cindy (2012) Finding protection from violent conflict and famine?, Sarvi. Horn of Africa Journal, 18 July.
Horst, Cindy (2012) En trygg havn? [A safe haven?], Dagbladet, 3 July.
Lischer, Sarah (2011) No Refuge for Somali Refugees, Huffington Post, 4 November.
Lischer, Sarah (2011) Why Western Aid Won't Save Somalia, Huffington Post, 9 August.
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol (2011) Fragmentering i terrorens tid [Fragmentation in the Time of Terror], Dagsavisen, 2 August.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Cindy Horst; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten, 8 November.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Ekskludert fra utvikling? [Excluded from Development?], Dagsavisen, 29 July.
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol (2010) Kravet om forklaring, Dagsavisen, 14 July.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Mohamed Husein Gaas & Cindy Horst (2008) Tvunget til lovbrudd [Forced to Break the Law], Dagbladet, 2 April.
Carling, Jørgen & Frida Austvoll Nome (2005) Hvem er menneskesmuglerne? [Who are the Human Smugglers?], Dagbladet, 1 February.

PRIO Report

Horst, Cindy; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Matteo Guglielmo; Petra Mezzetti; Päivi Pirkkalainen; Valeria Saggiomo; Giulia Sinatti; & Andrea Warnecke (2010) Participation of Diasporas in Peacebuilding and Development. A Handbook for Practitioners and Policymakers, PRIO Report, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Migrant Remittances and Development Cooperation, PRIO Report, 1. Oslo: PRIO.

Master Thesis

Talleraas, Cathrine (2014) The policy determinants of migration: What is the role of the Senegalese government in shaping patterns of migration from Senegal to Europe?. MA thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo.
Hernández Carretero, María (2008) Risk-taking in Unauthorised Migration. MA thesis, Centre for Peace Studies, University of Tromsø.
Sandbæk, Miriam Latif (2007) “Everybody Wants To Go Abroad”: An Ethnographic Analysis of Migration Motivations in Morocco. MA thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Copenhagen (KU), Copenhagen.

Conference Paper

Paasche, Erlend (2014) Elites and emulators: the evolution of an Iraqi Kurdish - European migration system, presented at THEMIS conference: Theorizing migration systems, University of Oxford, 26.02.2014.
Carling, Jørgen & María Hernández-Carretero (2008) Kamikaze Migrants? Understanding and Tackling High-risk Migration from Africa, presented at Narratives of Migration Management and Cooperation with Countries of Origin and Transit, Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of Sussex, 18–19 September.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg 2008What is Special about Refugee Warriors?, presented at Global Migation and Transnational Politics: Towards a New Policy Agenda18 April.
Horst, Cindy 2007 A Monopoly on Assistance? International Aid to Refugee Camps and the Role of the Diaspora, presented at AEGIS Conference, , 11 July.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Unauthorized Entry at Europe’s Southern Borders: Routes, Dynamics and Fatalities, presented at International Migration in Europe: New Trends, New Methods of Analysis, Rome, 25–27 November .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy options for increasing the benefits of remittancesGeneva, 27 September—1 October.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Mellom to hjemland [Between Two Homelands], presented at Utlendingsdirektoratets vårkonferanse 2004, Radisson SAS Oslo Plaza, Oslo, 19 April.

PRIO Policy Brief

Carling, Jørgen (2017) Refugee Advocacy and the Meaning of ‘Migrants’, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Hansen, Julie Marie (2016) Women Building Peace after Forced Migration: The Case of the Myanmar Diaspora in Norway, GPS Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Tellander, Ebba & Mohamed Aden Hassan (2016) Accountability in the Taxation System in Somaliland, PRIO Policy Brief, 24. Oslo: PRIO.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg & Benjamin Onne Yogev (2016) Syria’s Internally Displaced and the Risk of Militarization, PRIO Policy Brief, 6. Oslo: PRIO.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2016) Exile Socialization, PRIO Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2016) ‘Voting with Their Feet’ or Returning to Fight?, PRIO Policy Brief, 9. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Mette Strømsø (2016) Norskhet i flertall [Plural Norwegianness], PRIO Policy Brief, 14. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy & Nasra Jama (2016) Resources for Health Care in Somaliland: From the International to the Communal?, PRIO Policy Brief, 23. Oslo: PRIO.
Tellander, Ebba & Mohamed Aden Hassan (2016) Isla-xisaabtanka Nidaamka Cashuuraha ee Somaliland [Accountability in the Taxation System in Somaliland], PRIO Policy Brief, 24. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cathrine Talleraas (2015) Becoming One of Us?, PRIO Policy Brief, 11. Oslo: PRIO.
Oeppen, Ceri & Nassim Majidi (2015) Can Afghans Reintegrate after Assisted Return from Europe?, PRIO Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Alder, botid og livsfase: Integrering i et tidsperspektiv [Norwegian version], PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Age, life cycle, and length of stay: temporal perspectives on integration [English version], PRIO Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Horst, Cindy & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Humanitarianism and Return: Compromising Protection?, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy (2015) Back in Business? Diaspora Return to Somalia, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) The Matrix of Attachment, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) Tilknytningsmatrisen [The Matrix of Attachment], PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) Pakistan as a Return Migration Destination, PRIO Policy Brief, 13. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2015) How Polish Migrants in Norway Consider Return Migration, PRIO Policy Brief, 12. Oslo: PRIO.
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Marta Bivand Erdal (2015) Other Voices, Other Choices?, PRIO Policy Brief, 15. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Kaja Borchgrevink (2015) Diaspora Development Engagements Seen Through the Prism of Islamic Charity, PRIO Policy Brief, 16. Oslo: PRIO.
Talleraas, Cathrine (2014) The Unintended Effects of Norway’s Readmission Agreement with Ethiopia, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Iraqi Kurdistan: Partner Under Pressure, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Paasche, Erlend (2014) Why Assisted Return Programmes Must Be Evaluated, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Ensuring the welfare of children who stay when parents migrate, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Who wants to go to Europe? Results from a large-scale survey on migration aspirations, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Naftalin, Mark & Kristian Berg Harpviken (2012) Rebels and Refugees: Syrians in Southern Turkey, PRIO Policy Brief, 10. Oslo: PRIO.
Gaas, Mohamed Husein & Cindy Horst (2009) Diaspora Organizations from the Horn of Africa in Norway: Contributions to Peacebuilding?, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy (2008) Diaspora Engagements in Development Cooperation, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Carling, Jørgen & Cathrine Talleraas (2016) Root Causes and Drivers of Migration: Implications for Humanitarian Efforts and Development Cooperation, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Carling, Jørgen; Elin Berstad Mortensen & Jennifer Wu (2011) A Systematic Bibliography on Return Migration, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Engaging Diasporas in Development. A Review of Pilot Project Pakistan, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2010) Immigration to Norway from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Morocco and Ukraine, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Carling, Jørgen (2017) Expert Panellist Statement on the Smuggling of Migrants, Fifth Informal Thematic Session in the process towards a Global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. Vienna: Office of the President of the General Assembly, United Nations.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bolognani; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Ceri Oeppen; Erlend Paasche; Silje Vatne Pettersen; & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Possibilities and Realities of Return MigrationOslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Alice Ennals; Kari Helene Partapouli; & Nadia Falch Bandak, eds, (2015) Diaspora og Utvikling [Diaspora and Development]Oslo: Development Fund.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2012) Migrasjon og nye utenrikspolitiske realiteter [Migration and new Norwegian foreign policy realities]The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) European Strategies for Reducing 'Unwanted' Immigration, DIIS Brief. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS).

Report - External Series

Carling, Jørgen; Christopher Horwood; & Anne Gallagher (2015) Beyond Definitions: Global migration and the smuggling–trafficking nexus, RMMS Discussion Paper, 2. Nairobi: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat.
Horst, Cindy (2013) Somalis in Oslo, Somalis in European Cities. New York: Open Society Foundations.
Carling, Jørgen; Papa Demba Fall; María Hernández Carretero; Mame Yassine Sarr; & Jennifer Wu (2013) Migration aspirations in Senegal: Who wants to leave and why does it matter?, European Policy Brief. Brussels: European Commission.
Afeef, Karin Fathimath (2009) A Promised Land for Refugees? Asylum and Migration in Israel, EPAU Working Papers [New Issues in Refugee Research], 183. Geneva.
Strand, Arne; Arghawan Akbari; Torunn Wimpelmann Chaudhary; Kristian Berg Harpviken; Akbar Sarwari; & Astri Suhrke (2008) Return in Dignity, Return to What? Review of Voluntary Return Programme to Afghanistan, CMI Report, 6. Bergen: CMI.
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2008) From 'Refugee Warriors' to 'Returnee Warriors: Militant Homecoming in Afghanistan and Beyond, Global Migration and Transnational Politics Working Paper , 5. Arlington, VA: Center for Global Studies, George Mason University.
Carling, Jørgen (2006) Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe, IOM Migration Research Series, 23. Geneva.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Gender Dimensions of International Migration, Global Migration Perspectives, 35. .
Strand, Arne; Astri Suhrke; & Kristian Berg Harpviken (2004) Afghan Refugees in Iran: From Refugee Emergency to Migration Management, CMI Policy Brief. Bergen/Oslo: CMI/PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy Options for Increasing the Benefits of Remittances, COMPAS Working Paper. Oxford.

Book Review

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Review of Alexander Betts, ed., Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement, in The Journal of Modern African Studies 52(2): 332–333.
Vargas-Silva, Carlos (2013) Review of Review of Marta Bivand Erdal, ed., Handbook of Research Methods in Migration, in International Migration Review 47(2): 474–475.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2012) Review of Protecting Our Ports: Domestic and International Politics of Containerized Freight Security, in Journal of Peace Research 49(3): .
Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Review of The Political Economy of Global Remittances: Gender, Governmentality and Neoliberalism, in Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30: 753–.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Review of Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, in Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 11(3): 399–400.

Blog Posts

Batman in Vienna: Choosing How to Confront Migrant Smuggling

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Tuesday, 12 September 2017

There’s a lot to gain from better management of migration. That was the idea that inspired States in 2016 to set out on a path towards a Global Compact for Migration. As a step in the process, UN Member States gathered in Vienna on 4 September to discuss the issue ... Read more »

A Plural Conception of the Nation

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Mette Strømsø on Friday, 18 August 2017

Nationalism and the political salience of national identities are on the rise in contemporary Europe and beyond. This rise is often associated with populist movements. These include populist political parties, several in position across Europe today, whose politics are characterized by isolationism and anti-immigration stances, and right-wing populist groups, characterized ... Read more »

Why Don’t All Migrants Return in Times of Crisis?

Posted by María Hernández-Carretero on Thursday, 22 June 2017

In the early 2000s, numerous migrants arrived in Spain, attracted by the prospects of finding a job in the country’s booming economy. They quickly grew to represent 11% of the total population in 2008, from 2% in 2000. But when the financial crisis hit and Spain topped Europe’s unemployment rates, ... Read more »

Trump Reminded Me Why I Am An Academic

Posted by Idean Salehyan on Monday, 6 March 2017

“Why did you become an academic?” is a question that I’m frequently asked. For me, my path into this profession is pretty clear. I was about fourteen and a freshman in high school in the early 1990s. A few of my friends joined the school chapter of Amnesty International, and ... Read more »

No-Man’s Land

Posted by Marte Heian-Engdal on Friday, 20 January 2017

In the north-eastern corner of Jordan, thousands of Syrians are left stranded. In the north-eastern corner of Jordan, where the country borders both Iraq and Syria, a barrier resembling a mound of earth extends across the desert. Running parallel to this barrier is a second mound of earth, this time ... Read more »

Give Us Your Phone and We May Grant You Asylum

Posted by Rocco Bellanova, Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Raphael Gellert on Monday, 17 October 2016

Images of refugees using smartphones have now become common in the Western media landscape, and everybody seems to have learned that refugees and migrants, too, use smartphones. Indicative of this awareness, European governments are now looking into how to make use of these assets in their identity checks and in ... Read more »

The End Of Migrants As We Know Them?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 19 September 2016

The UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants holds the promise of progress. But ahead of the summit, communications staff were pushing a warped view of migrant diversity. Even the International Organization of Migration (IOM) is straying from its mission to uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants. When migration issues ... Read more »

Refugee Resettlement as Humanitarian Governance: The Need for a Critical Research Agenda

Posted by Adèle Garnier, Kristin B. Sandvik & Liliana Lyra Jubilut on Wednesday, 14 September 2016

This blog post suggests understanding refugee resettlement as an instrument of humanitarian governance from the selection of refugees to their long-term integration. It presents a five-point research agenda aiming to investigate resettlement’s power dynamics in multiscalar perspective, with a focus on: political economy; the UNHCR’s competing goals; and the role ... Read more »

A Sense of Community in Times of Terrorism

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Friday, 22 July 2016

In contrast to the impression one may derive from “the debate about the debate” in Norway, “we” – the overwhelming majority – can agree on many points, including the fact that we stand united in the struggle against extremism. We succeeded in doing so in the “rose marches” five years ... Read more »

Negotiating Collective Identities

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Thursday, 21 July 2016

The 22 July attacks, now five years ago, bore horrific testimony to what an ideology of exclusion and hatred, at the hands of one man, can do. Whilst the terror was of such a scope that the moment called for a unified response, ideological cleavages along the Eurabia, anti-Islam, and ... Read more »

A Post-Brexit We?

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 4 July 2016

Who is the ‘we’ in the context of the Brexit vote? Whilst the protection of British borders was a key ingredient in Brexit debates, the answer to what kind of a community we are talking about within those borders, remains in desperate need of addressing. Lingering notions of cultural purity ... Read more »

Syria Travellers and Security Threats

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Katrine Fangen on Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Foreign fighters returning from Syria have emerged as a looming security threat in many European countries, so also in Norway. As well as preventive measures against radicalization and mobilization by the Islamic State, there have been calls for the withdrawal of citizenship and deportation of returned foreign fighters. This raises a number of questions: Are Norwegians more secure ... Read more »

Norway and Kenya Prepare for Forceful Returns of Somalis

Posted by Anab Ibrahim Nur on Sunday, 12 June 2016

As the blessed month of Ramadan begins, many here in Mogadishu are concerned about the security situation, with talks of increased numbers of Al-Shabaab insurgents entering the city in preparation of carrying out attacks. Driving through the Makka Al Mukram road, considered to be in the safe zone, that is, ... Read more »

Assisted Return Not a Permanent Solution for All Asylum Seekers

Posted by Arne Strand & Lovise Aalen on Tuesday, 3 May 2016

Many asylum seekers who choose assisted return are from a country destroyed by war and conflict. More than half of those who return to countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq plan to migrate again. Assisted return is a viable type of support to assist with the return, but is not ... Read more »

The EU-Turkey Refugee Deal is Costly – Especially for the Refugees

Posted by Pinar Tank & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Thursday, 7 April 2016

The agreement reflects the EU’s self-interest just as much as Turkey’s, but takes little account of the interests and rights of the refugees. On Friday 18 March, Turkey and the EU concluded a deal designed to put an end to refugees’ use of the sea route to travel from Turkey ... Read more »

Seeing Flight as a Non-violent Option: One Way to Change the Discourse about the World’s 60 Million Refugees

Posted by Erica Chenoweth & Hakim Young on Wednesday, 3 February 2016

Today, one in every 122 humans living on the planet is a refugee, an internally displaced person, or an asylum-seeker. In 2014, conflict and persecution forced a staggering 42,500 persons per day to leave their homes and seek protection elsewhere, resulting in 59.5 million total refugees worldwide. According to the ... Read more »

Somalia’s Hope for the Future? The Return of Young Diaspora Somalis

Posted by Cindy Horst on Monday, 30 November 2015

The Somali conflict has affected Somali citizens inside and outside the Somali region for over 25 years. While Somaliland and Puntland have enjoyed relative stability for more than two decades, conditions are much more fragile in south-central Somalia, and residents in many parts of the Somali region face considerable levels ... Read more »

Pakistan’s Crippling Energy Crisis and Increasing Remittances

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Zain Ul Abdin on Thursday, 1 October 2015

Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems. This summer CNBC run a report titled Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems after more than a thousand people died during heatwaves during the first days of Ramadan. Insufficient preparedness for the heatwave is largely seen as the cause of deaths, yet the context ... Read more »

Refugees are Also Migrants. And All Migrants Matter

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 7 September 2015

The recent debate over word choice has taken turns that undermine humanitarian principles and cloud the view of how migration is unfolding. The Washington Post, the New York Times, the Guardian, the BBC, and others have examined the usage of ‘refugees’ versus ‘migrants’ over the past week. The general impression ... Read more »

Return Migration: Pakistan as a Return Migration Destination

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 24 August 2015

Return migration to Pakistan is diverse. It ranges from return mobilities of naturalized citizens and those born abroad to so-called ‘voluntary assisted returns’ and deportations of migrants without regular status. Pakistan receives returnees from the Middle East, as well as from Europe and North America, which reflects broader Pakistani migration ... Read more »

Return Migration: Polish Migrants to Norway

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 24 August 2015

How do Polish Migrants in Norway Consider Return Migration?  After Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004 and the substantial emigration that followed, return migration was an expectation widely shared by observers in Poland and abroad. Return migration has been modest, however, even in the wake of the 2008-2009 ... Read more »

Becoming One of Us: The Politics of Citizenship in France, Norway and the UK

Posted by Cathrine Talleraas & Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 5 August 2015

Citizenship and naturalization legislation in France, Norway, and the UK has changed substantially more during the 2000s than in previous decades. In which areas of citizenship policy have changes occurred? And how do these changes relate to the trend of reinvigorating the citizenship institution to increase social cohesion? This blog ... Read more »

Contestations over National Identity and Diversity: An analysis of French and British media debates in the autumn 2014

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Cathrine Talleraas on Tuesday, 28 July 2015

How and when is national identity and nationhood debated, and what does this reveal about the boundaries of national identity? Drawing on analyses of opinion pieces from French and British newspapers, we examine how national identity is debated, contested and challenged in light of national and international news events during ... Read more »

Most Muslims Celebrate Eid

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Thursday, 16 July 2015

Now that Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting, is ending, most Muslims – in Oslo, as elsewhere in the world – celebrate the festival of Eid. It is a time for celebration. For many Muslims, it is also a time to help those less well-off than themselves, either through the ... Read more »

Equality in North-South Research Collaboration

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal, Anum Amjad, Qamar Zaman Bodla & Asma Rubab on Thursday, 2 July 2015

Research collaboration across Global South-North divides is an articulated aim in many academic institutions. In this blog we point to the value added, as well as some of the challenges of such collaboration, based on our experiences from collaborative research on migration and transnationalism in Pakistan and Norway. We are ... Read more »

Back in Business? Diaspora Return to Somalia

Posted by Cindy Horst on Thursday, 18 June 2015

In most post-conflict contexts, returning diaspora members contribute to reconstruction efforts; including through investments in businesses. While many invest in traditional ventures, others introduce new ideas for entrepreneurship. In Somalia, diaspora businesses are visible and valued; especially for their development and peacebuilding potential. The conflict has affected Somali citizens inside ... Read more »

ASEAN’s Rohingya Challenge: Can ASEAN fail to act and yet be a Community?

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Wednesday, 17 June 2015

A human tragedy has been unfolding in the Bay of Bengal. Thousands of poor Rohingya and Bangladeshi refugees and job seekers have been the victims of xenophobia, cynical smugglers and incapable governance. What has ASEAN done? So far very little. Yet this crisis is exactly the kind of non-traditional trans-national ... Read more »

The Child Welfare Services in Norway and Migration

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 17 June 2015

The recent demonstrations against Norway’s Child Welfare Service (Barnevernet), in Oslo and outside Norwegian embassies abroad, express the deep frustration and fear felt by some parents with immigrant background. In recent years this frustration has received increased attention both in Norway and internationally. The international diplomatic repercussions of this crisis ... Read more »

Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption

Posted by Jørgen Carling, Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel on Thursday, 11 June 2015

International migration and corruption have several things in common: they play key roles in development processes, feature prominently on policy agendas, and are the subject of large research literatures. However, the connections between migration and corruption, whether in the country of origin or along migration trajectories, remain relatively unexplored. The ... Read more »

A Close Look at Border Security in the Mediterranean

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Monday, 1 June 2015

The EU’s response to the increased flow of refugees crossing the Mediterranean has been to boost border security by means of Operation Triton, which is the responsibility of Frontex, the EU border agency. There is little one can do, however, to impose effective border controls at sea. Operation Triton does ... Read more »

The Matrix of Attachment: Immigrant Integration and Transnationalism

Posted by Jørgen Carling & Silje Vatne Pettersen on Friday, 29 May 2015

Immigrants typically have attachments in two directions: to the country in which they live, and to their country of origin. These attachments are often discussed in terms of integration and transnationalism, respectively. A new conceptual framework, which we call the matrix of attachment, enables us to examine immigrant integra-tion and ... Read more »

On becoming Norwegian

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Thursday, 28 May 2015

In May 2015, one of Norway’s leading daily newspapers, Aftenposten, launched a series of profiles titled #JegErNorsk (#IAmNorwegian). One is of Slavomir, who has made his everyday life easier by changing his name to Stian. Another is of Tara, who feels at her least Norwegian on Norway’s national day, when ... Read more »

Can Afghans Reintegrate after Assisted Return from Europe?

Posted by Ceri Oeppen & Nassim Majidi on Friday, 22 May 2015

Governments present the assisted return of rejected asylum seekers and other ‘unwanted’ migrants as the cornerstone of an effective migration management policy. However, it is also a practice criticised by migrants’ rights advocates for being a form of coerced, rather than voluntary, return. One response to critiques is to highlight ... Read more »

What Would Have Been New about Bombing Migrant Boats?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Wednesday, 13 May 2015

The European Union has made it clear that bombs were not part of the plan for war against people smuggling after all. “No one is thinking of bombing,” said Federica Mogherini, EU foreign policy chief, yesterday. The alleged plans for bombing had already caused widespread alarm and protest. But what would ... Read more »

Humanitarianism and Return

Posted by Cindy Horst & Tove Heggli Sagmo on Monday, 4 May 2015

Humanitarianism and Return: Compromising Protection In many contexts around the world, states use funding for humanitarian programming as an active part of their attempts to manage populations displaced by conflict. Humanitarian aid to refugees and internally displaced is commonly understood as a temporary activity that ends when people will return ... Read more »

Unlikely Partners: The EU-Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative

Posted by Cindy Horst & Maimuna Mohamud on Wednesday, 22 April 2015

Should the EU cooperate with regional states to manage and control migration from the Horn of Africa? Proponents of greater migration control within the EU increasingly favor the use of political and economic incentives as an approach to prevent migration from the Horn of Africa and elsewhere, effectively through increasingly ... Read more »

A Burden no one Wants to Share: Why do Refugees from the Horn of Africa try to Cross into Europe?

Posted by Cindy Horst & Maimuna Mohamud on Tuesday, 21 April 2015

The humanitarian crisis in the Mediterranean, with staggering high numbers of deaths of asylum seekers and migrants attempting to cross by sea, shows the urgency of an alternative approach to Europe’s current border policies. Across the EU, mounting internal political pressures have intensified debates about migration and asylum, encouraging policies ... Read more »

An Uncertain Future in Afghanistan

Posted by Arne Strand on Thursday, 26 March 2015

Under the tripartite agreement entered into between Afghanistan, Norway and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Afghans who are refused asylum in Norway have two choices: either to take advantage of the assisted repatriation programme; or to reject this offer and risk being forcibly deported and returned to Kabul ... Read more »

How Migration Spurs Battles over Women

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Tuesday, 10 March 2015

(This post was originally published on Jørgen Carling’s personal web site.) Migration affects the lives of women in many ways. One subtle but critical mechanism lies in disputes over ‘who’ migrant women are. Migration researchers can play a role in making the battles apparent and showing how they matter. I ... Read more »

Always an Immigrant, Never Norwegian

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Wednesday, 4 February 2015

Immigrants have become integrated into Norwegian society with degrees of success that range between two possible extremes: strong attachment and total alienation. In debates about integration, ethnicity and country of origin are often claimed to be the key factors for determining whether or not integration will be successful. Other important ... Read more »

Why Assisted Return Programmes Must Be Evaluated

Posted by Erlend Paasche on Friday, 30 January 2015

Rejected asylum seekers often resist the legal obligation to return. Consequently, European policy makers tasked with migration managament have turned to so-called ‘Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration programmes’ (AVRRs) to incentivize return to and support reintegration in the country of origin. Such programmes are described as less politically costly, more ... Read more »

Foreign Helpers

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Friday, 19 December 2014

While a small number of young Norwegian Muslims have travelled to Syria to join militant groups as “foreign fighters”, far greater numbers of young Muslims are supporting humanitarian efforts. Most media attention is focused on young people travelling abroad to fight, rather than on young people’s humanitarian work. Throughout the ... Read more »

Where is My Home?

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Friday, 5 December 2014

Considerations about return are a persistent dimension of identity work in migrant populations. The question of where and what constitutes ‘home’ for migrants is central to understanding processes of integration in settlement contexts. Simultaneously, where and what constitutes ‘home’ sheds light on motivations for sustained transnational ties, but also on ... Read more »

Norway's Outdated Citizenship Legislation

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Tove Heggli Sagmo on Monday, 20 October 2014

The war in Syria, the threat of Islamic radicalisation, and fears that terrorists may recruit Norwegian citizens have sparked renewed debate about Norway’s citizenship legislation. Meanwhile, another debate continues to be forgotten: We call for a reopening of the debate on dual citizenship, as Norway’s antiquated legislation is out of ... Read more »

Women and Public Life in the Somali Region

Posted by Maimuna Mohamud on Tuesday, 14 October 2014

Somali women are often perceived as a homogenous social group perpetually living in destitution as victims of mutilation, sexual exploitation, famine, and war. Whilst we must not ignore atrocities committed against them, it is important to demonstrate that Somali women are not passive victims, and to not disregard a history ... Read more »

Refugees are a Shared Responsibility

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Tuesday, 23 September 2014

A record number of refugees have arrived by boat in southern Europe this summer. Norway should voice its support for a common European solution to the issue of boat migrants crossing the Mediterranean. Last year this would have been front-page news, but now each new arrival – or each refugee ... Read more »

Filipino Migration is Extraordinary

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Sunday, 3 August 2014

The population of the Philippines is surpassing 100 million in late July 2014. That’s a reminder of the country’s importance in global migration. Emigration generally has the strongest impacts in countries with relatively small populations, such as El Salvador, Armenia and Samoa. In fact, as the scatterplot shows, only five ... Read more »

Muslim Charity for the Poor

Posted by Kaja Borchgrevink & Marta Bivand Erdal on Monday, 28 July 2014

Fasting and celebration At this time Muslims all over the world are celebrating Eid – Islam’s most important religious festival. Eid marks the end of Ramadan, the month of fasting. After the Eid prayer, families and friends gather to celebrate. This is a time for dressing in fine clothing, eating ... Read more »

Invisible Aid

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Kaja Borchgrevink on Friday, 4 July 2014

Muslims pay 15 times more “religious tax” than the rest of the world gives in humanitarian aid. Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, has just started. A time of fasting for devout Muslims, this is also the time of year when most Muslims pay their annual zakat. Zakat ... Read more »

Unintended Effects of Norway’s Readmission Agreement with Ethiopia

Posted by Cathrine Talleraas & Marta Bivand Erdal on Wednesday, 18 June 2014

The main purpose of migration policy is to affect migration flows. Sometimes, however, policies have other, unintended effects. Such consequences are easily overlooked in policy evaluations, which usually focus on the effectiveness of a given policy in terms of its intended aim. This Policy Brief analyses the outcome of Norway’s ... Read more »

The Unintended Consequences of Education among Pakistani Migrants to the UK

Posted by Marta Bolognani on Tuesday, 10 June 2014

The field of education has been at the forefront of social policy concerns for at least three decades in the UK. The debate around integration and education revolves mainly around two aspects: the ability of migrants to integrate, depending on their level of education; and the challenges brought by migrants ... Read more »

On Distance and Proximity

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Thursday, 31 October 2013

On July 22nd 2011, I was home from work when I heard a loud blast. It sounded like thunder. Strange that I had not seen any lightning, with a sound this loud, I thought before carrying on with household chores. Half an hour later I took a break, logging onto ... Read more »

Complexities and Challenges in Afghan migration?

Posted by Ceri Oeppen on Tuesday, 25 June 2013

If you look at the return programs organized by European governments (usually in partnership with the IOM) you will notice that return and reintegration are often mentioned together, as if they always coincide. However, reintegration (however it is defined) does not automatically follow return. Also, how ‘success’ in reintegration assistance ... Read more »

'Maybe someday I’ll return…'

Posted by Rojan Tordhol Ezzati on Tuesday, 25 June 2013

The ‘super-diversity’ case-study in the PREMIG project was, unlike the other five case-studies, not defined around a country of origin. Instead we defined it based on temporal dimensions, by interviewing people who had either come to Norway during their childhood, before turning 14, or recently, in the past 1-5 years. This was, ... Read more »

Public Trust in the State

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal on Saturday, 22 December 2012

For a society such as the Norwegian one, public trust in the state is a cornerstone. But what happens when that trust is lacking? In several cases over the past year (2012), the involvement of Norway’s Child Protection Service (“Barnevernet”) with families of immigrant background has been the subject of ... Read more »