Governance

Coordinator: Helga Malmin Binningsbø

​​​​The Governance research group looks at the interplay between aspects of governance and peace at the domestic and the international level. Governance is defined very broadly to include the formal institutions that regulate recruitment to and execution of political power as well as less formal structures and processes, including how decisions are implemented, human rights protection or violation, and informal power structures.

​Research questions addressed by the group include:

  • What kind of political institutions are particularly likely to engender political violence, human rights violations and violations of countries' own constitutional regulations?
  • How do various political institutions influence the durability of peace after civil war?
  • Do different political institutions foster different types of collective violence?
  • How is the prevalence of violence affected by the effectiveness of law enforcement and societal means of controlling violence, and how does violence in turn change the practices and effectiveness of law enforcement?
  • When are conflict-related justice processes, such as trials, truth commissions, reparations, amnesties, purges, and exiles implemented, and what are their effects?
  • Is there a difference between justice processes implemented during and after armed conflict?
  • Why do governments choose different justice processes at different points during conflict trajectories and after war?
  • What is the relative importance of institutions of constraint, institutions of election/selection, and other aspects of governance to ensure non-violent politics?
  • What are the long-term effects on political violence of changes to political institutions?
  • How are the effects of political institutions on political violence mediated through stimulation of economic growth, reduction of intergroup inequality, property rights protection, and struggles over the setup of political institutions themselves?
  • How do global institutions of governance (e.g., the UN) affect political violence within and betwen countries?
  • What are the likely future trajectories of governance and political violence?

The research group will also be engaged in collecting data on governance- and human rights-related issues, such as indicators capturing aspects of political institutions and data on electoral violence and electoral fraud.

Publications

Recent publications

Cunningham, David; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch; Belen Gonzalez; Dragana Vidovic & Peter B. White (2017) Words and Deeds: From Incompatibilities to Outcomes in Anti-Government Disputes, Journal of Peace Research 54(4): 468–483.
Beardsley, Kyle; David Cunningham & Peter B. White (2017) Resolving Civil Wars Before they Start: The United Nations Security Council and Conflict Prevention, British Journal of Political Science 47(3): 675–697.

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Cunningham, David; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch; Belen Gonzalez; Dragana Vidovic & Peter B. White (2017) Words and Deeds: From Incompatibilities to Outcomes in Anti-Government Disputes, Journal of Peace Research 54(4): 468–483.
Beardsley, Kyle; David Cunningham & Peter B. White (2017) Resolving Civil Wars Before they Start: The United Nations Security Council and Conflict Prevention, British Journal of Political Science 47(3): 675–697.
Knutsen, Carl Henrik; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Tore Wig (2017) Autocratic Elections: Stabilizing Tool or Force for Change?, World Politics 69(1): 98–143.
Buhaug, Halvard; Lars-Erik Cederman & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2016) Ulikhet, eksklusjon og borgerkrig [Inequality, Exclusion, and Civil War], Politica 48(1): 12–29.
White, Peter B.; Dragana Vidovic; Belén González; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & David Cunningham (2015) Nonviolence as a Weapon of the Resourceful: From Claims to Tactics in Mobilization, Mobilization 20(4): 471–491.
Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv (2015) The role of international organizations in regime transitions: How IGOs can tie a dictator’s hands, Conflict Management and Peace Science. DOI: 10.1177/0738894215599554.
Hegre, Håvard & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Governance and Conflict Relapse, Journal of Conflict Resolution 59(6): 984–1016.
Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv & Michael Weintraub (2015) Bargaining Between Rebel Groups and the Outside Option of Violence, Terrorism and Political Violence 27(3): 557–580.
Beardsley, Kyle; Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & Nigel Lo (2015) Roving Bandits? The Geographical Evolution of African Armed Conflicts, International Studies Quarterly 59(3): 503–516.
Beardsley, Kyle & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2015) Peacekeeping as Conflict Containment, International Studies Review 17(1): 67–89.
Asal, Victor; Ken Cousins & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2015) Making Ends Meet: Combining Organizational Data in Contentious Politics, Journal of Peace Research 52(1): 134–138.
Knutsen, Carl Henrik & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Institutional Characteristics and Regime Survival: Why Are Semi-Democracies Less Durable Than Autocracies and Democracies?, American Journal of Political Science 59(3): 656–670.
Knutsen, Carl Henrik (2014) Income Growth and Revolutions, Social Science Quarterly 95(4): 920–937.
Basedau, Matthias; Birte Pfeiffer & Johannes Vüllers (2014) Bad Religion? Religion, Collective Action, and the Onset of Armed Conflict in Developing Countries, Journal of Conflict Resolution 60(2): 226–255.
Buhaug, Halvard; Lars-Erik Cederman & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch (2014) Square Pegs in Round Holes: Inequalities, Grievances, and Civil War, International Studies Quarterly 58(2): 418–431.
Holtermann, Helge (2014) Relative Capacity and the Spread of Rebellion: Insights from Nepal, Journal of Conflict Resolution 60(3): 501–529.
Hansen, Susanne & Nicholas Marsh (2014) Normative power and organized hypocrisy: European Union member states’ arms export to Libya, European Security 24(2): 264–286.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin (2013) Power sharing, peace and democracy: Any obvious relationships?, International Area Studies Review 16(1): 89–112.
Hegre, Håvard; Joakim Karlsen; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; Håvard Strand & Henrik Urdal (2013) Predicting Armed Conflict, 2010–2050, International Studies Quarterly 57(2): 250–270.
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher (2013) Actor Fragmentation and Civil War Bargaining: How Internal Divisions Generate Civil Conflict, American Journal of Political Science 57(3): 659–672.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin; Cyanne Loyle ; Scott Gates & Jon Elster (2012) Armed Conflict and Post-Conflict Justice, 1946–2006: A Dataset, Journal of Peace Research 49(5): 731–740.
Dahl, Marianne & Bjørn Høyland (2012) Peace on Quicksand? Challenging the Conventional Wisdom About Economic Growth and Post-Conflict Risks, Journal of Peace Research 49(3): 423–429.
Gates, Scott; Håvard Hegre; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Håvard Strand (2012) Development Consequences of Armed Conflict, World Development 40(9): 1713–1722.
Holtermann, Helge (2012) Explaining the Development–Civil War Relationship, Conflict Management and Peace Science 29(1): 56–78.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Siri Aas Rustad (2012) Sharing the Wealth: A Pathway to Peace or a Trail to Nowhere?, Conflict Management and Peace Science 29(5): 547–566.
Hegre, Håvard; Lisa Hultman & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2011) Simulating the Effect of Peacekeeping Operations 2010–2035, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6589: 325–332.
Hegre, Håvard; John R. Oneal & Bruce M. Russett (2010) Trade Does Promote Peace: New Simultaneous Estimates of the Reciprocal Effects of Trade and Conflict, Journal of Peace Research 47(6): 763–774.
Østby, Gudrun; Clionadh Raleigh & Håvard Hegre (2009) Poverty and Civil War Events: A Disaggregated Study of Liberia, Journal of Conflict Resolution 53(4): 298–623.
Hegre, Håvard (2009) Trade Dependence or Size Dependence?: The Gravity Model of Trade and the Liberal Peace, Conflict Management and Peace Science 26(1): 26–45.
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Kendra Dupuy (2009) Using Power-Sharing to Win a War: The Implementation of the Lomé Agreement in Sierra Leone, Africa Spectrum 44(3): 87–107.
Hegre, Håvard (2008) Gravitating toward War: Preponderance May Pacify, but Power Kills, Journal of Conflict Resolution 52(4): 566–589.
Marsh, Nicholas (2007) Taming the Tools of Violence, Journal of Public Health Policy 28(4): 401–409.
Sambanis, Nicholas & Håvard Hegre (2006) Sensitivity Analysis of the Empirical Literature on Civil War Onset, Journal of Conflict Resolution 50(4): 508–535.

Monograph

Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher (2014) Inside the Politics of Self-Determination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gates, Scott & Kaushik Roy (2014) Unconventional Warfare in South Asia, Shadow Warriors and Counterinsurgency. Farnham: Ashgate.

Book Chapter

Hegre, Håvard & Idunn Kristiansen (2016) Global, State, and Individual Security in Quantitative Conflict Research, in Schlag, Gabi; Julian Junk; & Christopher Daase, eds, Transformations of Security Studies: Dialogues, Diversity and Discipline. New York: Routledge (190–215).
Gates, Scott & Kaushik Roy (2015) lntroduction: Armies, Warfare and the State in Afghanistan from Pre-modern Times to the Present Era, in Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, War and State-Building In Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury (1–20).
Gates, Scott; Kaushik Roy; Marianne Dahl & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Continuity and Change in Asymmetric Warfare in Afghanistan: From the Mughals to the Americans, in Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, War and State-Building in Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury (21–42).
Roy, Kaushik (2015) Great Mughals, Warfare and COIN in Afghanistan, 1520-1707, in Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, War and State-Building in Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury (43–78).
Checkel, Jeffrey T. (2014) Mechanisms, process, and the study of international institutions, in Bennett, Andrew; & Jeffrey T. Checkel, eds, Process Tracing: from Metaphor to Analytic Tool. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (74–97).
Checkel, Jeffrey T. (2014) Identity, Europe, and the world beyond public spheres, in Thomas Risse, ed., European Public Spheres: Politics is Back. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (227–246).
Hegre, Håvard & Helge Holtermann (2013) Poverty and Conflict, in Brown, Graham K.; & Arnim Langer, eds, Elgar Handbook of Civil War and Fragile States. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing (39–58).
Roy, Kaushik (2013) From the Mamluks to the Mansabdars: A Social History of Military Service in South Asia, c. 1500 to c. 1650, in Fighting for a Living: a Comparative History of Military Labour 1500-2000. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (81–114).
Harpviken, Kristian Berg (2012) Warlordism: Three Biographies From Southeastern Afghanistan, in Suhrke, Astri; & Mats Berdal, eds, The Peace In Between: Post-War Violence and Peacebuilding. London: Routledge (173–191).
de Soysa, Indra (2012) The Capitalist Civil Peace: Some Theory and Empirical Evidence, in Lujala, Päivi; & Siri Aas Rustad, eds, High-Value Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Abingdon: Earthscan (437–459).
Kreutz, Joakim ; Manuela Torre & Nicholas Marsh (2011) Regaining State Control: Arms and Violence in Post-conflict Countries, in Greene , Owen ; & Nicholas Marsh, eds, Small Arms, Crime and Conflict Global Governance and the Threat of Armed Violence. London: Routledge (64–76).
Marsh, Nicholas & Owen Greene (2011) Governance and Small Arms and Light Weapons, in Nicholas Marsh, ed., Small Arms, Crime and Conflict Global Governance and the Threat of Armed Violence. London: Routledge (163–182).
Borchgrevink, Kaja & Kristian Berg Harpviken (2010) Afghanistan: Civil Society Between Modernity and Tradition, in Thania Paffenholz , ed., Civil Society and Peacebuilding: a Critical Assessment. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner (235–257).
Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Håvard Hegre; & Håvard Strand (2009) Democracy and Civil War, in Handbook of War Studies III. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press (155–192).
Hegre, Håvard & Hanne Fjelde (2009) Post-Conflict Democracy and Conflict Recurrence, in Hewitt, J. Joseph; Jonathan Wilkenfeld; & Ted Robert Gurr, eds, Peace and Conflict 2010. Boulder: Paradigm Publishers (79–90).
Marsh, Nicholas (2006) The Nordic Countries and Conventional Arms Control: The Case of Small Arms and Light Weapons, in The Nordic Countries and the European Security and Defence Policy. Oxford: SIPRI.

Edited Volume

Gates, Scott; & Kaushik Roy, eds, (2015) War and State-Building in Afghanistan: Historical and Modern Perspectives. London: Bloomsbury. Bloomsbury Studies in Military History.

Conference Paper

Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Cyanne Loyle (2014) Justice during armed conflict from 1949 through 2011: A new dataset, presented at International Studies Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, Canada, 26–29 March 2014.
Strand, Håvard; Håvard Hegre; Scott Gates & Marianne Dahl (2012) Why Waves? Global Patterns of Democratization, 1816-2008, presented at 3rd International Conference on Democracy as Idea and Practice, Oslo, 12–13 January 2012.
Hegre, Håvard; Carl Henrik Knutsen & Espen Geelmuyden Rød (2012) The Determinants of Democracy: A Sensitivity Analysis, presented at merican Political Science Association Annual Convention, New Orleans, January 9.
Hegre, Håvard; & Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv 2012 Governance and Conflict Relapse, presented at International Studies Association Annual Convention, San Diego 1-4 April 2012, , .
Binningsbø, Helga Malmin & Cyanne Loyle (2011) Offers of Justice and Peace: Bargaining and Justice Processes during Conflict, presented at The Potential Role of Transitional Justice in Ongoing Conflicts, Minerva Center for Human Rights, Hebrew University, Israel, 14 November.
Hegre, Håvard; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; Håvard Strand; Scott Gates & Ranveig D. Flaten (2011) The Conflict Trap, presented at American Political Science Association Annual Meeting., Seattle, WA, October 11, 2011.
Hegre, Håvard;Hultman, Lisa ; & Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv 2010 Evaluating the Conflict Reducing Effects of UN Peace-Keeping Operations, presented at American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, , 1–5 September.

PRIO Paper

Marsh, Nicholas & Gugu Dube (2014) Preventing Diversion: The Importance of Stockpile Management, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Corney, Neil & Nicholas Marsh (2013) Aiming for Control: The need to include ammunition in the Arms Trade Treaty, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - External Series

Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv; & Håvard Hegre (2015) Protracted Conflict and Development in the Arab Region, E/ESCWA/ECRI/2015/2 UNESCWA Trends and Impacts, 4. New York: United Nations.
Karim, Atina; & Nicholas Marsh (2015) State positions and practices concerning reporting and the Arms Trade Treaty, ATT Monitor, 1. New York: ATT Monitor.
Strand, Håvard; Håvard Hegre; Scott Gates; & Marianne Dahl (2012) Why Waves? Global Patterns of Democratization, Working paper. .
Hegre, Håvard; & Nygård, Håvard Mokleiv (2011) The Governance-Conflict Trap in the ESCWA Region, Background paper for UN study The Governance Deficit and Conflict Relapse in the ESCWA Region, : .
Chaitani, Youssef ; Håvard Hegre; Vito Intini; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; & Maria Ortiz Perez (2011) The Governance Deficit and Conflict Relapse in the ESCWA Region: An Overview, UN Doc E/ESCWA/ECRI/2011/1, 25 August. Beirut: UN ESCWA.
Gates, Scott; Håvard Hegre; Håvard Mokleiv Nygård; & Håvard Strand (2010) Consequences of Civil War, Background paper for World Development Report 2011. .
Hegre, Håvard (2008) The Nature and Causes of Violent Conflicts in Africa, Background paper for African Development Report 2008, : .
Gleditsch, Nils Petter; Lene Siljeholm Christiansen; & Håvard Hegre (2007) Democratic Jihad? Military Intervention and Democracy, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 4242. .
Harpviken, Kristian Berg; & Kjell Erling Kjellman (2004) Beyond Blueprints: Civil Society and Peacebuilding, Concept Paper commissioned by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). .

Blog Posts

Zimbabwe: from Coup to Democratization?

Posted by Marianne Dahl & Kristian Skrede Gleditsch on Friday, 17 November 2017

In the early hours of the morning on 15 November, the Zimbabwean military placed President Mugabe under house arrest. The coup against one of the longest serving rulers in Africa appears to have been a reaction to Mugabe’s ouster of his vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa, to pave the way for his ... Read more »

What to Expect from India at COP23?

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Uttam Sinha on Wednesday, 1 November 2017

Climate change is not a one-way street of cause and effect. International negotiations on climate change and the reduction of emissions are equally complex. A consistent Indian demand has been  green technology transfer from “high-emitting” developed countries. An equally longstanding principle is that of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities, ... Read more »

Totalitarianism Closing in on China

Posted by Stein Ringen on Monday, 16 October 2017

The only drama in the “two sessions” jamboree in Beijing this spring is that there was no drama at all. Each year the Chinese political élite, 5000 men and a few women strong, congregate in the capital for a week of meetings of the legislature, the National People’s Congress, and ... Read more »

Sleepless in the Age of Trump

Posted by Tore Wig on Monday, 6 February 2017

What we know about how great power wars start should make us terrified of President Trump. I don’t sleep at night, because of Donald Trump. This is unusual. I wasn’t kept awake at night by George W. Bush or Bill Clinton. Nor do I lose sleep over hot-blooded authoritarians such ... Read more »

Digital India: Less Cash, but not Cashless

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Elida Kristine Undrum Jacobsen on Wednesday, 30 November 2016

The past month has seen historic events in India. On Tuesday 8 November 2016, the Modi government announced without prior warning that all 500 and 1000 Indian rupee notes would be rendered valueless more or less overnight. In effect, this meant immediate withdrawal of the largest bank notes in circulation, ... Read more »

Democratic Intervention?

Posted by Nils Petter Gleditsch on Tuesday, 15 November 2016

Donald Trump has made statements sceptical of military interventions in the Middle East. This is perhaps a rare piece of good news. Military intervention as a means of building democracy has once again become a hot topic. The Norwegian government has been criticized due to the consequences of the intervention ... Read more »

India’s Membership of the Missile Technology Control Regime

Posted by Rajiv Nayan & Åshild Kolås on Thursday, 18 August 2016

India became the 35th member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) on 27 June 2016. The MTCR is an informal and voluntary association of suppliers of ballistic and cruise missiles capable of delivering Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), and other unmanned aerial vehicles. It was established in 1987 with ... Read more »

Blair’s Global Vision – and Lacking Knowledge Base

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Tuesday, 12 July 2016

Tony Blair took the decision to take part in the military intervention in Iraq in 2003 more or less on his own, and based it on very scant knowledge. Are there reasons to fear the same happening again? The British Chilcot Commission has released a crushing verdict over former PM ... Read more »

The Right to Decide: Exit and Basque Self-Determination

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Tuesday, 28 June 2016

Five years ago, the Basque militant group ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom) announced a unilateral and permanent cessation of operations. Since then, the disappearance of political violence has given rise to a new debate on Basque nationhood: more inclusive, more open, more civic, and at the same time stronger in ... Read more »

Syria Travellers and Security Threats

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Katrine Fangen on Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Foreign fighters returning from Syria have emerged as a looming security threat in many European countries, so also in Norway. As well as preventive measures against radicalization and mobilization by the Islamic State, there have been calls for the withdrawal of citizenship and deportation of returned foreign fighters. This raises a number of questions: Are Norwegians more secure ... Read more »

The ‘Sovereign’ according to Ola Tunander

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Monday, 30 May 2016

On Friday 27 May 2016, PRIO celebrated Ola Tunander’s 30-year academic career with a seminar on ‘Sovereignty, Subs and PSYOPS’, and a reception. The celebration was, of course, focused on Ola and his work, spanning topics from the geopolitics and organic state theory of Rudolf Kjellén to the 27 October ... Read more »

Is it Strange that Dictators Hold Elections?

Posted by Håvard Mokleiv Nygård on Monday, 14 December 2015

Why do dictators hold elections that merely play to the gallery? On 11 October, Alexander Lukashenko was re-elected as president of Belarus with an impressive 84 per cent share of the vote. The election was anything but free and fair. According to the OSCE, Belarusian law makes it impossible for ... Read more »

Unarmed Protests Force Leaders from Power Twice as Often as Violent Uprisings

Posted by Kristian Skrede Gleditsch on Thursday, 29 October 2015

Research lends support to the Nobel Committee’s rationale for its award of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2015; the revolution in Tunisia shows how non-violent protest can assist in democratization. The award of the Nobel Peace Prize to the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet came as a surprise to most observers. ... Read more »

Can an Economic Boom Ensure Peaceful Elections in Côte d’Ivoire?

Posted by Kathleen Klaus & Matthew I. Mitchell on Thursday, 22 October 2015

On Oct. 25, Ivorians head to the polls for their first presidential election since the disputed 2010 election that left more than 3,000 dead and more than 500,000 displaced. Despite the previous electoral violence and a decade of civil war and political turmoil from 2000-2010, most discussion before this election ... Read more »

Pakistan’s Crippling Energy Crisis and Increasing Remittances

Posted by Marta Bivand Erdal & Zain Ul Abdin on Thursday, 1 October 2015

Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems. This summer CNBC run a report titled Deadly heat exposes Pakistan’s power problems after more than a thousand people died during heatwaves during the first days of Ramadan. Insufficient preparedness for the heatwave is largely seen as the cause of deaths, yet the context ... Read more »

Institutional Characteristics and Regime Survival: Why Are Semi-Democracies Less Durable than Autocracies and Democracies?

Posted by Håvard Mokleiv Nygård & Carl Henrik Knutsen on Monday, 10 August 2015

In Zaïre (currently DR Congo) in 1991, the country’s personalist ruler Mobutu Sese Seko faced popular unrest, army mutinies, and shrinking resources for patronage. Mobutu was seemingly starting to lose his grip on power, which he had held since the mid-1960s. In response, Mobutu ended the decades-long ban on political ... Read more »

How Can States and Non-State Actors Respond to Authoritarian Resurgence?

Posted by Erica Chenoweth on Monday, 20 July 2015

Two weeks ago, the Monkey Cage ran a piece by Matthew Baum and Phil Potter suggesting that the policy of “democracy-promotion” has gone out of style.[1] I think they’re right that in many circles democracy-promotion is politically passé and that, more broadly, democracy advocates are really having a tough couple ... Read more »

Are Norwegian Oil Companies making Civil Wars More Likely?

Posted by Ragnhild Belbo on Tuesday, 20 January 2015

East Africa has become the latest hotspot for oil-and-gas discoveries, but the reserves are located in countries characterized by weak state institutions and social unrest. A number of African countries – several of them with significant Norwegian assistance – are on the threshold of becoming major producers of oil and ... Read more »

Measurement of Regime Type Effects on Police Focus

Posted by Erica Chenoweth on Wednesday, 30 July 2014

Is there any measurable way to tell whether police become more or less focused on crime prevention and public safety in nations that are not fully democratic? Interesting question. I guess answering it would have to start with a good theory as to why police would change their priorities and ... Read more »

Democracy, Democratization, and Political Violence

Posted by Håvard Hegre on Friday, 16 May 2014

The process of democratization is often violent in the short run, and democratic governments are more constrained in their use of force against insurgents than non-democratic authorities. But are democracies really more prone to political violence than other political systems? This is the theme of a short article published at ... Read more »

Electing India's Future

Posted by Jason Miklian & Kristian Hoelscher on Monday, 12 May 2014

In April, 800 hundred million people began casting their ballots all across India in the largest election the world has ever seen. When we think of voting in India, we often picture a poor elderly villager showing a big ink-stained thumb and boasting a wide smile as proof of democracy ... Read more »

Nepal Moves Towards Democracy

Posted by Helge Holtermann & Scott Gates on Saturday, 8 February 2014

Democracy is to a large extent about parties being willing to accept electoral defeat. In Nepal the Maoist Party, previously engaged in guerrilla warfare, has done precisely this. A wave of election boycotts is sweeping across Asia. In Thailand’s election on 2 February the “Democrats” succeeded in preventing voting in ... Read more »

Why does Democratization Occur in Waves?

Posted by Håvard Hegre on Sunday, 12 January 2014

The ‘Arab Spring’ demonstrated that political transitions tend to occur together in space and time. Samuel Huntington coined the term ‘Waves of democratization’ in his book The Third Wave. The figure above shows that changes to the proportion of the world’s countries that are democracies occurs in spurts. Confirming Huntington’s three waves ... Read more »