Remittances from Immigrants in Norway (RIN)

Led by Jørgen Carling
Jan 2007 - Jul 2012

This project will generate new knowledge about remittances from immigrants in Norway, use Norwegian data to contribute to the international literature on remittances, and facilitate the development of remittance-related policies that better reconcile conflicting interests. By combining quantitative and qualitative data, the project will address the complex relationship between remittance-sending and integration. The project is guided by four research questions:

  • How is the sending of remittances related to integration?
  • How do immigrants in Norway choose remittance transfer mechanisms?
  • How is the transfer and expenditure of remittances perceived by senders and receivers?
  • How can Norwegian policy better reconcile the different interests related to remittances?

A strategic choice has been made to concentrate parts of the data collection and analysis on two immigrant groups: Pakistanis and Somalis. Such a choice is necessary in order to collect country-specific data also at the receiving end. It is widely recognized that remittance dynamics are affected by national factors at both ends of the transfer, and that so-called remittance corridors (e.g. Norway-Pakistan) are often the appropriate unit of analysis. The project team will conduct interviews with Pakistanis and Somalis and in Norway and fieldwork in Pakistan and East Africa

In addition to the in-depth study of transfers to Pakistan and Somalia, the project will make use of statistics from the Living Conditions of Immigrants (LKI) survey. The survey includes immigrants from ten countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Chile, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Serbia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Turkey and Vietnam).

Research Groups


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Beyond the insider–outsider divide in migration research, Migration Studies 2(1): 36–54.
Carling, Jørgen & Kristian Hoelscher (2013) The Capacity and Desire to Remit: Comparing Local and Transnational Influences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 939–958.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Cindy Horst (2012) How does Conflict in Migrants’ Country of Origin Affect Remittance-Sending? Financial Priorities and Transnational Obligations Among Somalis and Pakistanis in Norway, International Migration Review 46(2): 283–309.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Determinants of Migrant Remittances , Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24(3): 582–599.
Horst, Cindy (2008) A Monopoly on Assistance? International Aid to Refugee Camps and the Role of the Diaspora, Afrika Spectrum 43(1): 121–131.

PhD Thesis

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Transnational ties and belonging: Remittances from Pakistani migrants in Norway. PhD thesis, Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.

Book Chapter

Horst, Cindy (2013) International Aid to Refugees in Kenya: The Neglected Role of the Somali Diaspora, in Kane, Abdoulaye; & Todd Leedy, eds, African Migrations: Patterns and Perspectives. Indiana: Indiana University Press (195–210).
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Ezzati (2013) Når ute også er hjemme. Migrasjon og utenrikspolitikk, in Weltzien, Åsmund; & Odd Mølster, eds, Norge Og Det Nye Verdenskartet. Oslo: Cappelen Damm (58–79).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Interrogating Remittances: Core Questions for Deeper Insight and Better Policies, in Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. (43–64).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Interrogar a las remesas: perguntas centrales para reflexiones más profundas y políticas más adecuadas [Interrogating remittances: core questions for deeper insight and better policies], in Migración Y Desarrollo: Perspectivas Desde El Sur. (51–73).
Horst, Cindy(2007) The Role of Remittances in the Transnational Livelihood Strategies of Somalis Global Migration and Development. : .

Popular Article

Erdal, Marta Bivand & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2015) Når blir du norsk? [When do you become Norwegian?], Aftenposten.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; & Ezzati, Rojan (2013) Norge og det nye verdenskartet [Norway and the new world map], Dagsavisen, 22 May.
Erdal, Marta Bivand;Horst, Cindy;Carling, Jørgen; & Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten , 8 November.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Mohamed Husein Gaas & Cindy Horst (2008) Tvunget til lovbrudd [Forced to Break the Law], Dagbladet, 2 April.

PRIO Report

Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.

Conference Paper

Horst, Cindy 2008 Somali Assistance Networks: The Social Dynamics of Sending Remittances, presented at Gwendolen M. Carter Conference Migrations In & Out of Africa: Old Patterns & New Perspectives, , 15 February.

Report - Other

Ezzati, Rojan (2012) Migrasjon og nye utenrikspolitiske realiteter [Migration and new Norwegian foreign policy realities]: The Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Book Review

Erdal, Marta Bivand (2012) Review of The Political Economy of Global Remittances: Gender, Governmentality and Neoliberalism, in Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 30: 753–.


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