Jørgen Carling

Research Professor

Jørgen Carling
Email: jorgen@prio.org
Work phone: (+47) 22 54 77 64
Mobile phone: (+47) 47 32 42 42
Twitter: @jorgencarling
Website: www.jorgencarling.org

Research Interests

See also my personal web site.
Follow me on Twitter: @jorgencarling

Theories of migration and transnationalism
Migration aspirations and intentions
 Networks and chain migration processes
Family and gender in migration
Immigration policy and migration pressure
Border control and migrant fatalities
Undocumented migration and human smuggling
 The demography of immigrant communities
 Remittances and migration-development links

I have conducted ethnographic fieldwork in Cape Verde, Italy and the Netherlands, primarily with Cape Verdeans, but also with migrants from Ghana and China. Through statistical data and secondary analysis, I have engaged with migration to Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and United Kingdom, as well as to Europe more generally. This work has examined migration from Brazil, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Pakistan, Turkey, Ukraine, and other countries. I have used diverse methods, often in combination:

 Semi-structured interviews
 Participant observation in multi-sited fieldwork
 Purpose-made sample surveys
 Statistical analysis of existing survey data
 Demographic projection from register data
 Discourse and document analysis

I hold a position as Research Affiliate at the Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS) at the University of Oxford.

I am an Editorial Board member of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, the International Migration Review and Migration Letters.

What I am doing at the moment: Autumn 2016
I will be spending most of the autumn as a visiting resercher at the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG) of Maastricht University, which is integrated within The UNU-MERIT United Nations University. During my stay I am finalizing a number of publications and starting to analyze data from our project Transnational Lives in the Welfare State (TRANSWEL). I will also be working on a special issue entitled 'Desires, Aspirations and the Drivers of Migration', co-edited with Francis Collins (University of Auckland). I will give a keynote lecture at Maastricht Centre for Citizenship, Migration and Development (entitled 'What is transnational? Exploring the ontologies of an evocative adjective') and another one at the Hugo Conference on environment, migration and politics (entitled 'Unraveling the causes of migration).

Background

​​​​​​Personal profiles on other sites
LinkedIn
Academia.edu
Google Scholar Citations
YouTube

Language skills
Proficient: English, Norwegian and Cape Verdean Kriol
Basic skills: Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch
All but forgotten: Esperanto and Japanese

Work experience
2012-: Research Professor; Research Director, PRIO.
2011-2011: Research Professor; Programme Leader, PRIO.
2009-2011: Senior Researcher; Programme Leader, PRIO.
2007-2009: Senior Researcher, PRIO.
2002-2007: Researcher, PRIO.
1999: Research assistant, Statistics Norway
1998: Research assistant, Institute for Social Research
1997: Research assistant, Statistics Norway

Academic visitorships
2016: UNU-MERIT United Nations University and Maastricht University
2010: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore
2005: COMPAS, University of Oxford
2003: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

Education
2007. PhD (Human geography)
University of Oslo, Norway.
2001. Cand. polit. (Human geography)
University of Oslo, Norway.
1998. Cand. mag. (Human geography, demography and economics)
University of Oslo, Norway.
1993. International Baccalaureate
United World College of the Atlantic, Wales.

Research Groups

Full member:

PRIO Departments

Current
Historical

PRIO Projects

Ongoing:
Finished:

Events

PRIO started tracking events online in 2007. This listing is not complete. Past events may be mentioned in our news archive.

Publications

See also the publication list on my personal web site and Google Scholar Citations for a list of my most frequently cited publications.

Recent publications

Carling, Jørgen (2016) West and Central Africa, in McAuliffe, Marie; & Frank Laczko, eds, Migrant Smuggling Data and Research: a Global Review of the Emerging Evidence Base. Geneva: International Organization For Migration (25–53).
Carling, Jørgen & Cathrine Talleraas (2016) Root causes and drivers of migration. Implications for humanitarian efforts and development cooperation, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Carling, Jørgen (2016) Trajectórias transnacionais de mães e crianças nas famílias cabo-verdanas [Mother-child trajectories in Cape Verdean transnational families], in Furtado, Cláudio Alves; Pierre-Joseph Laurent; & Iolanda Évora, eds, As Ciências Sociais Em Cabo Verde. Praia: Edições Uni-CV (187–206).

All publications

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Brown, Richard; Jørgen Carling; Sonja Fransen & Melissa Siegel (2014) Measuring remittances through surveys: Methodological and conceptual issues for survey designers and data analysts, Demographic Research 31: 1243–1274.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2014) Return Migration Intentions in the Integration–Transnationalism Matrix, International Migration 52(6): 13–30.
Carling, Jørgen (2014) Scripting Remittances: Making Sense of Money Transfers in Transnational Relationships, International Migration Review 48: 218–262.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Ezzati (2014) Beyond the insider–outsider divide in migration research, Migration Studies 2(1): 36–54.
Carling, Jørgen & Marianne Tønnessen (2013) Fathers’ Whereabouts and Children’s Welfare in Malawi, Development Southern Africa 30(6): 724–742.
Carling, Jørgen & Kristian Hoelscher (2013) The Capacity and Desire to Remit: Comparing Local and Transnational Influences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 939–958.
Hernández Carretero, María & Jørgen Carling (2012) Beyond "Kamikaze Migrants": Risk Taking in West African Boat Migration to Europe, Human Organization 71(4): 407–416.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Cindy Horst (2012) How does Conflict in Migrants’ Country of Origin Affect Remittance-Sending? Financial Priorities and Transnational Obligations Among Somalis and Pakistanis in Norway, International Migration Review 46(2): 283–309.
Carling, Jørgen;Schmalzbauer, Leah; & Menjívar, Cecilia (2012)Central Themes in the Study of Transnational Parenthood , Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 191–217.
Åkesson, Lisa; Jørgen Carling & Heike Drotbohm (2012) Mobility, Moralities and Motherhood: Navigating the Contingencies of Cape Verdean Lives, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 237–260.
Carling, Jørgen; & Hernández Carretero, María (2011) Protecting Europe and Protecting Migrants? Strategies for Managing Unauthorised Migration from Africa , British Journal of Politics and International Relations 13(1): 42–58.
Carling, Jørgen & Lisa Åkesson (2009) Mobility at the Heart of a Nation: Patterns and Meanings of Cape Verdean Migration, International Migration 47(3): 123–155.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Determinants of Migrant Remittances , Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24(3): 582–599.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Human Dynamics of Migrant Transnationalism , Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(8): 1452–1477.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Toward a Demography of Immigrant Communities and Their Transnational Potential, International Migration Review 42(2): 449–475.
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2005) On the Edge of the Chinese Diaspora: The Surge of Baihuo Business in an African City, Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 639–662.

Book Chapter

Carling, Jørgen (2016) West and Central Africa, in McAuliffe, Marie; & Frank Laczko, eds, Migrant Smuggling Data and Research: a Global Review of the Emerging Evidence Base. Geneva: International Organization For Migration (25–53).
Carling, Jørgen (2016) Trajectórias transnacionais de mães e crianças nas famílias cabo-verdanas [Mother-child trajectories in Cape Verdean transnational families], in Furtado, Cláudio Alves; Pierre-Joseph Laurent; & Iolanda Évora, eds, As Ciências Sociais Em Cabo Verde. Praia: Edições Uni-CV (187–206).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) Making and Breaking a Chain: Migrants’ Decisions about Helping Others Migrate, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (156–182).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) Exploring 12 Migration Corridors: Rationale, Methodology and Overview, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (18–46).
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Collecting, Analysing and Presenting Migration Histories, in Vargas-Silva, Carlos, ed., Handbook of Research Methods In Migration. Edward Elgar Publishing(137–162).
Carling, Jørgen(2011) The European Paradox of Unwanted Migration A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration. : Brussels University Press (VUB)(33–46).
Carling, Jørgen & Luís Batalha (2008) Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora, in Jørgen Carling, ed., Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. .
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2008) Mixed Fates of a Popular Minority: Chinese migrants in Cape Verde, in Chris Alden, ed., China Returns to Africa. a Rising Power and a Continent Embrace. (319–337).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands, in Jørgen Carling, ed., Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora.. .
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Interrogating Remittances: Core Questions for Deeper Insight and Better Policies, in Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. (43–64).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) 'Diaspora', 'Immigration', 'Emigration', 'Population', and 'Remittances', in Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde. .
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Interrogar a las remesas: perguntas centrales para reflexiones más profundas y políticas más adecuadas [Interrogating remittances: core questions for deeper insight and better policies], in Migración Y Desarrollo: Perspectivas Desde El Sur. (51–73).
Carling, Jørgen(2005) Incorporer certains enseignements des recherches sur la migration dans les politiques des transferts de fonds [Incorporating Insights from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances] Migrations, Transferts De Fonds Et Développement. : OECD(309–316).
Carling, Jørgen(2005) Incorporating Insight from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances Migration, Remittances and Development. : (289–296).

Edited Volume

Carling, Jørgen; Jennifer Lee; & Pia Orrenius, eds, (2014) Special Anniversary Issue: International Migration in the 21st Century: Advancing the Frontier of Scholarship and Knowledge. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell. International Migration Review.
Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, (2008) Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam.
Carling, Jørgen (ed.) (2002) Nordic demography: Trends and differentials. Oslo. Scandinavian Population Studies.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Carling, Jørgen; Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel (2015) Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption, Migration Information Source 5.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Return Migration and Transnationalism: How Are the Two Connected?, International Migration 52(6): 2–12.
Lee, Jennifer; Jørgen Carling & Pia Orrenius (2014) The International Migration Review at 50: Reflecting on Half a Century of International Migration Research and Looking Ahead, International Migration Review 48: 3–36.

Popular Article

Carling, Jørgen (2013) En langvarig utfordring [A Long-Term Challenge], NRK Ytring.
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Use your author's rights to make articles freely available, Impact of Social Sciences, 19/11/2012.
Erdal, Marta Bivand;Horst, Cindy;Carling, Jørgen; & Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten , 8 November.

PRIO Report

Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Migrant Remittances and Development Cooperation, PRIO Report, 1. Oslo: PRIO.

Conference Paper

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Returmigrasjon: ut av Norge og tilbake til hva?, presented at Velferd, arbeidsliv og migrasjon – hva nå?, Oslo, 20/03/13.
Carling, Jørgen; & Hernández Carretero, María 2008 Kamikaze Migrants? Understanding and Tackling High-risk Migration from Africa, presented at Narratives of Migration Management and Cooperation with Countries of Origin and Transit, , 18–19 September.

PRIO Policy Brief

Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) The Matrix of Attachment, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) Tilknytningsmatrisen [The Matrix of Attachment], PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Who wants to go to Europe? Results from a large-scale survey on migration aspirations, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Carling, Jørgen & Cathrine Talleraas (2016) Root causes and drivers of migration. Implications for humanitarian efforts and development cooperation, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Carling, Jørgen; Elin Berstad Mortensen & Jennifer Wu (2011) A Systematic Bibliography on Return Migration, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Horst, Cindy; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Ezzati (2010) Immigration to Norway from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Morocco and Ukraine, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Policy Challenges Facing Cape Verde in the Areas of Migration and Diaspora Contributions to Development, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bolognani; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Ceri Oeppen; Erlend Paasche; Silje Vatne Pettersen; & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Possibilities and Realities of Return MigrationOslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) The anatomy of an academic paper: a brief guide (version 2.0)Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Carling, Jørgen (2009) Books About Writing: An Overview for Social Scientists: .
Carling, Jørgen (2009) The Anatomy of an Academic Paper: A Brief Guide: .

Report - External Series

Carling, Jørgen (2015) Beyond Definitions: Global migration and the smuggling–trafficking nexus, RMMS Discussion Paper, 2. Nairobi: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat.
Carling, Jørgen; Papa Demba Fall; María Hernández Carretero; Mame Yassine Sarr; & Jennifer Wu (2013) Migration aspirations in Senegal: Who wants to leave and why does it matter?, European Policy Brief. Brussels: European Commission.

Book Review

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Review of Alexander Betts, ed., Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement, in The Journal of Modern African Studies 52(2): 332–333.

Blog Posts

The End Of Migrants As We Know Them?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 19 September 2016

The UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants holds the promise of progress. But ahead of the summit, communications staff were pushing a warped view of migrant diversity. Even the International Organization of Migration (IOM) is straying from its mission to uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants. When migration issues rose to the top of international agendas last year the word ‘migrants’ became a matter of contention. Many interventions were cast as a matter of clarification and correctness, but actually concealed a fundamental disagreement: do ‘migrants’ include ‘refugees’? There are two opposing views, which can be called inclusivist and residualist. ...

Refugees are Also Migrants. And All Migrants Matter

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 7 September 2015

The recent debate over word choice has taken turns that undermine humanitarian principles and cloud the view of how migration is unfolding. The Washington Post, the New York Times, the Guardian, the BBC, and others have examined the usage of ‘refugees’ versus ‘migrants’ over the past week. The general impression is that ‘migrants’ are being thrown to the wolves. The most insidious contribution, sadly, comes from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). But first, the origins of the current debate: in mid-August 2015, Al Jazeera announced that the network will no longer refer to ‘migrants’ in the Mediterranean. ...

Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption

Posted by Jørgen Carling, Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel on Thursday, 11 June 2015

International migration and corruption have several things in common: they play key roles in development processes, feature prominently on policy agendas, and are the subject of large research literatures. However, the connections between migration and corruption, whether in the country of origin or along migration trajectories, remain relatively unexplored. The migration-corruption nexus has important implications for migrants, policymakers, practitioners, and local communities affected by emigration and immigration. Although focused attention to corruption remains rare in migration research, corruption frequently comes up as a topic because it affects people’s lives. For instance, one of the studies that inspired this article set ...

The Matrix of Attachment: Immigrant Integration and Transnationalism

Posted by Jørgen Carling & Silje Vatne Pettersen on Friday, 29 May 2015

Immigrants typically have attachments in two directions: to the country in which they live, and to their country of origin. These attachments are often discussed in terms of integration and transnationalism, respectively. A new conceptual framework, which we call the matrix of attachment, enables us to examine immigrant integra-tion and transnationalism simultaneously. This perspective, we argue, can inspire more nuanced analyses and policy development. We use this framework to analyze variations in attachment among immigrants in Norway. Immigrant integration and transnationalism are neither related in a fixed way nor independent of each other. A substantial proportion of immigrants have weak ...

What Would Have Been New about Bombing Migrant Boats?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Wednesday, 13 May 2015

The European Union has made it clear that bombs were not part of the plan for war against people smuggling after all. “No one is thinking of bombing,” said Federica Mogherini, EU foreign policy chief, yesterday. The alleged plans for bombing had already caused widespread alarm and protest. But what would have been new about bombing the boats that might have  ferried migrants and refugees across the Mediterranean? On the one hand, such action would have been unprecedented and dramatic — the ultimate militarization of migration control. On the other hand, it would simply have been another mode of a well-established ...

How Migration Spurs Battles over Women

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Tuesday, 10 March 2015

(This post was originally published on Jørgen Carling’s personal web site.) Migration affects the lives of women in many ways. One subtle but critical mechanism lies in disputes over ‘who’ migrant women are. Migration researchers can play a role in making the battles apparent and showing how they matter. I have collected fifteen articles that have inspired me to write this post. I’ll mention them as I write, highlighting what I think they bring to our understanding of battles over women in the context of migration. You’ll find the abstract and full reference for each article at the end of ...

Filipino Migration is Extraordinary

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Sunday, 3 August 2014

The population of the Philippines is surpassing 100 million in late July 2014. That’s a reminder of the country’s importance in global migration. Emigration generally has the strongest impacts in countries with relatively small populations, such as El Salvador, Armenia and Samoa. In fact, as the scatterplot shows, only five countries have remittance inflows representing at least 10 % of GDP and a population of at least 10 million people. Among them only Bangladesh and — as of July 2014 — the Philippines have populations of 100 million or more. The Philippines has a particular position also in research on ...

Terror Attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Sunday, 7 August 2011

A lot has already been written about the the events of 22 July 2011 their consequences. For me, the first weeks have been filled with emotionally draining experiences, coupled with debates that I haven’t felt prepared to engage in. Trying to see it all from a bit of distance, beyond the grief of those who were directly affected, these are the main thoughts I have: First, what happened needs to be called what it was: a terrorist attack. It is sad to see how the events were re-labelled and dismissed by much of the international media as soon at is ...

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