Jørgen Carling

Research Professor

Jørgen Carling
Email: jorgen@prio.org
Work phone: (+47) 22 54 77 64
Mobile phone: (+47) 47 32 42 42
Twitter: @jorgencarling
Website: www.jorgencarling.org
CV: Download CV

Research Interests

See also my personal web site.
Follow me on Twitter: @jorgencarling

Theories of migration and transnationalism
Migration aspirations and intentions
 Networks and chain migration processes
Family and gender in migration
Immigration policy and migration pressure
Border control and migrant fatalities
Undocumented migration and human smuggling
 The demography of immigrant communities
 Remittances and migration-development links

I have conducted ethnographic fieldwork in Cape Verde, Italy and the Netherlands, primarily with Cape Verdeans, but also with migrants from Ghana and China. Through statistical data and secondary analysis, I have engaged with migration to Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and United Kingdom, as well as to Europe more generally. This work has examined migration from Brazil, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Pakistan, Turkey, Ukraine, and other countries. I have used diverse methods, often in combination:

 Semi-structured interviews
 Participant observation in multi-sited fieldwork
 Purpose-made sample surveys
 Statistical analysis of existing survey data
 Demographic projection from register data
 Discourse and document analysis

I hold a position as Research Affiliate at the Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS) at the University of Oxford. I am an Editorial Board member of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, the International Migration Review and Migration Letters.


What I am doing at the moment: Autumn 2017

Much of my time in the second half of 2017 will be devoted analysing of data from our project Transnational Lives in the Welfare State (TRANSWEL). Roughly 100 interviews have been transcribed and coded, and our first results will be presented at a workshop in January 2018. I will also keep working with my Maastricht colleague Elaine McGregor on an ambitious attempt at bibliometric mapping of migration studies. In late August I will present Transnational place: theory and method in the search for an elusive facet of placeness at the RGS-IBG Annual Conference, a major event for geographers. A month later I will take part in preparations for the Global Compact on Migration in Geneva, as part of my membership in the Migration research leaders syndicate. One of my contributions there will address different approaches to countering migrant smuggling. Throughout the autumn I will also be working with Erlend Paasche on analyses of how migration and return are represented in Nigerian cultural production.

Background

​​​​​​Personal profiles on other sites
LinkedIn
Academia.edu
Google Scholar Citations
YouTube

Language skills
Proficient: English, Norwegian and Cape Verdean Kriol
Basic skills: Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch
All but forgotten: Esperanto and Japanese

Work experience
2012-: Research Professor; Research Director, PRIO.
2011-2011: Research Professor; Programme Leader, PRIO.
2009-2011: Senior Researcher; Programme Leader, PRIO.
2007-2009: Senior Researcher, PRIO.
2002-2007: Researcher, PRIO.
1999: Research assistant, Statistics Norway
1998: Research assistant, Institute for Social Research
1997: Research assistant, Statistics Norway

Academic visitorships
2016: UNU-MERIT United Nations University and Maastricht University
2010: Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore
2005: COMPAS, University of Oxford
2003: Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute

Education
2007. PhD (Human geography)
University of Oslo, Norway.
2001. Cand. polit. (Human geography)
University of Oslo, Norway.
1998. Cand. mag. (Human geography, demography and economics)
University of Oslo, Norway.
1993. International Baccalaureate
United World College of the Atlantic, Wales.

Research Groups

Full member:

PRIO Departments

Current
Historical

PRIO Projects

Ongoing:
Finished:

Events

PRIO started tracking events online in 2007. This listing is not complete. Past events may be mentioned in our news archive.

Publications

See also Google Scholar Citations for a list of my most frequently cited publications.

Recent Publications

Carling, Jørgen (2017) How Does Migration Arise?, Migration Research Leaders Syndicate in Support of the Global Compact for Migration. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
Carling, Jørgen & Kerilyn Schewel (2017) Revisiting aspiration and ability in international migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1384146.
Carling, Jørgen & Francis L. Collins (2017) Aspiration, desire and drivers of migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1384134.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) How should migrant smuggling be confronted?, Migration Research Leaders Syndicate in Support of the Global Compact for Migration. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Expert Panellist Statement on the Smuggling of Migrants, Fifth Informal Thematic Session in the process towards a Global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. Vienna: Office of the President of the General Assembly, United Nations.

All Publications

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Carling, Jørgen & Kerilyn Schewel (2017) Revisiting aspiration and ability in international migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1384146.
Carling, Jørgen & Francis L. Collins (2017) Aspiration, desire and drivers of migration, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2017.1384134.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Visualizing the transnational connections of China’s most African neighbourhood, Environment and Planning a. DOI: 10.1177/0308518X17690392.
Brown, Richard; Jørgen Carling; Sonja Fransen & Melissa Siegel (2014) Measuring remittances through surveys: Methodological and conceptual issues for survey designers and data analysts, Demographic Research 31: 1243–1274.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2014) Return Migration Intentions in the Integration–Transnationalism Matrix, International Migration 52(6): 13–30.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2014) Beyond the Insider–Outsider Divide in Migration Research, Migration Studies 2(1): 36–54.
Carling, Jørgen (2014) Scripting Remittances: Making Sense of Money Transfers in Transnational Relationships, International Migration Review 48: 218–262.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Carling, Jørgen & Kristian Hoelscher (2013) The Capacity and Desire to Remit: Comparing Local and Transnational Influences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(6): 939–958.
Carling, Jørgen & Marianne Tønnessen (2013) Fathers’ Whereabouts and Children’s Welfare in Malawi, Development Southern Africa 30(6): 724–742.
Hernández-Carretero, María & Jørgen Carling (2012) Beyond "Kamikaze Migrants": Risk Taking in West African Boat Migration to Europe, Human Organization 71(4): 407–416.
Carling, Jørgen; Cecilia Menjívar & Leah Schmalzbauer (2012) Central Themes in the Study of Transnational Parenthood, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 191–217.
Åkesson, Lisa; Jørgen Carling & Heike Drotbohm (2012) Mobility, Moralities and Motherhood: Navigating the Contingencies of Cape Verdean Lives, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 38(2): 237–260.
Carling, Jørgen & María Hernández Carretero (2011) Protecting Europe and Protecting Migrants? Strategies for Managing Unauthorised Migration from Africa, British Journal of Politics and International Relations 13(1): 42–58.
Carling, Jørgen & Lisa Åkesson (2009) Mobility at the Heart of a Nation: Patterns and Meanings of Cape Verdean Migration, International Migration 47(3): 123–155.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Human Dynamics of Migrant Transnationalism, Ethnic and Racial Studies 31(8): 1452–1477.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Toward a Demography of Immigrant Communities and Their Transnational Potential, International Migration Review 42(2): 449–475.
Carling, Jørgen (2008) The Determinants of Migrant Remittances, Oxford Review of Economic Policy 24(3): 582–599.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Unauthorized migration from Africa to Spain, International Migration 45(4): 3–37.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Borders, International Migration Review 41(2): 316–343.
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2005) On the Edge of the Chinese Diaspora: The Surge of Baihuo Business in an African City, Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 639–662.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders, Population, Space and Place 10(2): 113–132.
Carling, Jørgen (2003) Cartographies of Cape Verdean transnationalism, Global Networks 3(4): 533–539.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: Theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(1): 5–42.

PhD Thesis

Carling, Jørgen (2007) Transnationalism in the Context of Restrictive Immigration Policy. PhD thesis, Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo.

Book Chapter

Carling, Jørgen (2016) Trajectórias transnacionais de mães e crianças nas famílias cabo-verdanas [Mother-child trajectories in Cape Verdean transnational families], in Furtado, Cláudio Alves; Pierre-Joseph Laurent; & Iolanda Évora, eds, As Ciências Sociais Em Cabo Verde. Praia: Edições Uni-CV (187–206).
Carling, Jørgen (2016) West and Central Africa, in McAuliffe, Marie; & Frank Laczko, eds, Migrant Smuggling Data and Research: a Global Review of the Emerging Evidence Base. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (25–53).
Carling, Jørgen (2015) Making and Breaking a Chain: Migrants’ Decisions about Helping Others Migrate, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (156–182).
Carling, Jørgen & Dominique Jolivet (2015) Exploring 12 Migration Corridors: Rationale, Methodology and Overview, in Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, Beyond Networks: Feedback in International MIgration. Basingstoke: Palgrave (18–46).
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Collecting, Analysing and Presenting Migration Histories, in Carlos Vargas-Silva, ed., Handbook of Research Methods in Migration. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing (137–162).
Carling, Jørgen (2011) The European Paradox of Unwanted Migration, in Burgess, J. Peter; & Serge Gutwirth, eds, A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration. Brussels: Brussels University Press (VUB) (33–46).
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2008) Mixed Fates of a Popular Minority: Chinese Migrants in Cape Verde, in Alden, Chris; Daniel Large; & Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, eds, China Returns to Africa: a Rising Power and a Continent Embrace. London: Hurst (319–338).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Cape Verdeans in the Netherlands, in Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, Transnational Archipelago: Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora.. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (91–100).
Batalha, Luís & Jørgen Carling (2008) Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora, in Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, Transnational Archipelago: Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press (13–32).
Carling, Jørgen (2008) Interrogating Remittances: Core Questions for Deeper Insight and Better Policies, in Castles, Stephen; & Raúl Delgado Wise, eds, Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South. Geneva: International Organization for Migration (IOM) (43–64).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) 'Diaspora', 'Immigration', 'Emigration', 'Population', and 'Remittances', in Lobban, Jr., Richard A.; & Paul Khalil Saucier, eds, Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cape Verde. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Interrogar a las remesas: perguntas centrales para reflexiones más profundas y políticas más adecuadas [Interrogating remittances: core questions for deeper insight and better policies], in Castles, Stephen; & Raúl Delgado Wise, eds, Migración y desarrollo: perspectivas desde el sur. México D.F.: Miguel Angel Porrua (51–73).
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Incorporating Insight from Migration Research into Policy on Remittances, in Migration, Remittances and Development. Paris: (289–296).

Edited Volume

Carling, Jørgen; Jennifer Lee; & Pia Orrenius, eds, (2014) Special Anniversary Issue: International Migration in the 21st Century: Advancing the Frontier of Scholarship and Knowledge. Malden, MA: Wiley Blackwell. International Migration Review.
Batalha, Luís; & Jørgen Carling, eds, (2008) Transnational Archipelago. Perspectives on Cape Verdean Migration and Diaspora. Amsterdam.
Carling, Jørgen (ed.) (2002) Nordic demography: Trends and differentials. Oslo: Nordic Demographic Society. Scandinavian Population Studies.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Carling, Jørgen; Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel (2015) Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption, Migration Information Source 5.
Lee, Jennifer; Jørgen Carling & Pia Orrenius (2014) The International Migration Review at 50: Reflecting on Half a Century of International Migration Research and Looking Ahead, International Migration Review 48: 3–36.
Carling, Jørgen & Marta Bivand Erdal (2014) Return Migration and Transnationalism: How Are the Two Connected?, International Migration 52(6): 2–12.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) The Merits and Limitations of Spain's High-Tech Border Control, Migration Information Source.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Trafficking in Women from Nigeria to Europe, Migration Information Source.
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2005) Sie wagen und gewinnen. Chinesische Händler in Afrika. [They Dare and Win. Chinese Traders in Africa.], Der Überblick: Zeitschrift für ökumenische Begegnung und internationale Zusammenarbeit 41(4): 19–23.

Popular Article

Carling, Jørgen (2013) En langvarig utfordring [A Long-Term Challenge], NRK Ytring.
Carling, Jørgen (2012) Use your author's rights to make articles freely available, Impact of Social Sciences, 19 November.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Cindy Horst; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten, 8 November.
Carling, Jørgen & Frida Austvoll Nome (2005) Hvem er menneskesmuglerne? [Who are the Human Smugglers?], Dagbladet, 1 February.

PRIO Report

Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Migrant Remittances and Development Cooperation, PRIO Report, 1. Oslo: PRIO.

Conference Paper

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Returmigrasjon: ut av Norge og tilbake til hva?, presented at Velferd, arbeidsliv og migrasjon – hva nå?, Oslo, 20/03/13.
Carling, Jørgen & María Hernández-Carretero (2008) Kamikaze Migrants? Understanding and Tackling High-risk Migration from Africa, presented at Narratives of Migration Management and Cooperation with Countries of Origin and Transit, Sussex Centre for Migration Research, University of Sussex, 18–19 September.
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2004) How an African Outpost is Filled with Chinese Shops, presented at Fifth Conference of the International Society for the Study of Chinese Overseas, Helsingør, Denmark, 10–14 May.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Unauthorized Entry at Europe’s Southern Borders: Routes, Dynamics and Fatalities, presented at International Migration in Europe: New Trends, New Methods of Analysis, Rome, 25–27 November .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy options for increasing the benefits of remittancesGeneva, 27 September—1 October.
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Mellom to hjemland [Between Two Homelands], presented at Utlendingsdirektoratets vårkonferanse 2004, Radisson SAS Oslo Plaza, Oslo, 19 April.

PRIO Policy Brief

Carling, Jørgen (2017) Refugee Advocacy and the Meaning of ‘Migrants’, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) The Matrix of Attachment, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen & Silje Vatne Pettersen (2015) Tilknytningsmatrisen [The Matrix of Attachment], PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Ensuring the welfare of children who stay when parents migrate, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen (2013) Who wants to go to Europe? Results from a large-scale survey on migration aspirations, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Carling, Jørgen & Cathrine Talleraas (2016) Root Causes and Drivers of Migration: Implications for Humanitarian Efforts and Development Cooperation, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Carling, Jørgen; Elin Berstad Mortensen & Jennifer Wu (2011) A Systematic Bibliography on Return Migration, PRIO Paper. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Horst, Cindy; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Tordhol Ezzati (2010) Immigration to Norway from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Morocco and Ukraine, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Carling, Jørgen (2017) Expert Panellist Statement on the Smuggling of Migrants, Fifth Informal Thematic Session in the process towards a Global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration. Vienna: Office of the President of the General Assembly, United Nations.
Carling, Jørgen (2015) The anatomy of an academic paper: a brief guide (version 2.0)Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bolognani; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Ceri Oeppen; Erlend Paasche; Silje Vatne Pettersen; & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Possibilities and Realities of Return MigrationOslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO).
Carling, Jørgen (2007) European Strategies for Reducing 'Unwanted' Immigration, DIIS Brief. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS).

Report - External Series

Carling, Jørgen (2017) How Does Migration Arise?, Migration Research Leaders Syndicate in Support of the Global Compact for Migration. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) How should migrant smuggling be confronted?, Migration Research Leaders Syndicate in Support of the Global Compact for Migration. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.
Carling, Jørgen; Christopher Horwood; & Anne Gallagher (2015) Beyond Definitions: Global migration and the smuggling–trafficking nexus, RMMS Discussion Paper, 2. Nairobi: Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat.
Carling, Jørgen; Papa Demba Fall; María Hernández Carretero; Mame Yassine Sarr; & Jennifer Wu (2013) Migration aspirations in Senegal: Who wants to leave and why does it matter?, European Policy Brief. Brussels: European Commission.
Carling, Jørgen (2006) Migration, Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Nigeria to Europe, IOM Migration Research Series, 23. Geneva.
Carling, Jørgen (2005) Gender Dimensions of International Migration, Global Migration Perspectives, 35. .
Carling, Jørgen (2004) Policy Options for Increasing the Benefits of Remittances, COMPAS Working Paper. Oxford.

Book Review

Carling, Jørgen (2013) Review of Alexander Betts, ed., Survival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Displacement, in The Journal of Modern African Studies 52(2): 332–333.
Carling, Jørgen (2002) Review of Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, in Asian and Pacific Migration Journal 11(3): 399–400.

Blog Posts

Migrant Smugglers Are Winning. Here’s Why

Posted by Anne Gallagher & Jørgen Carling on Saturday, 4 November 2017

Migrant smuggling: moving people across borders for profit, is reported to be one of the fastest-growing and most lucrative forms of organized criminal activity. Smugglers crowd their human cargo into shipping containers and onto boats and trucks. Many migrants arrive safely and consider the investment well spent. But migrant smuggling ... Read more »

Batman in Vienna: Choosing How to Confront Migrant Smuggling

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Tuesday, 12 September 2017

There’s a lot to gain from better management of migration. That was the idea that inspired States in 2016 to set out on a path towards a Global Compact for Migration. As a step in the process, UN Member States gathered in Vienna on 4 September to discuss the issue ... Read more »

A PhD by Publication Allows You to Write for Real and Varied Audiences, Inviting Intellectual Exchanges that Benefit your Research

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Wednesday, 21 June 2017

A PhD by publication requires doctoral candidates to submit a set of papers for peer-reviewed journals plus an integrating chapter, rather than the more traditional doctoral dissertation. This remains a less common, sometimes frowned-upon model, but Jørgen Carling outlines eight reasons why a PhD by publication might be a good ... Read more »

The End Of Migrants As We Know Them?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 19 September 2016

The UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants holds the promise of progress. But ahead of the summit, communications staff were pushing a warped view of migrant diversity. Even the International Organization of Migration (IOM) is straying from its mission to uphold the human dignity and well-being of migrants. When migration issues ... Read more »

Refugees are Also Migrants. And All Migrants Matter

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Monday, 7 September 2015

The recent debate over word choice has taken turns that undermine humanitarian principles and cloud the view of how migration is unfolding. The Washington Post, the New York Times, the Guardian, the BBC, and others have examined the usage of ‘refugees’ versus ‘migrants’ over the past week. The general impression ... Read more »

Finding Connections: The Nexus between Migration and Corruption

Posted by Jørgen Carling, Erlend Paasche & Melissa Siegel on Thursday, 11 June 2015

International migration and corruption have several things in common: they play key roles in development processes, feature prominently on policy agendas, and are the subject of large research literatures. However, the connections between migration and corruption, whether in the country of origin or along migration trajectories, remain relatively unexplored. The ... Read more »

The Matrix of Attachment: Immigrant Integration and Transnationalism

Posted by Jørgen Carling & Silje Vatne Pettersen on Friday, 29 May 2015

Immigrants typically have attachments in two directions: to the country in which they live, and to their country of origin. These attachments are often discussed in terms of integration and transnationalism, respectively. A new conceptual framework, which we call the matrix of attachment, enables us to examine immigrant integra-tion and ... Read more »

What Would Have Been New about Bombing Migrant Boats?

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Wednesday, 13 May 2015

The European Union has made it clear that bombs were not part of the plan for war against people smuggling after all. “No one is thinking of bombing,” said Federica Mogherini, EU foreign policy chief, yesterday. The alleged plans for bombing had already caused widespread alarm and protest. But what would ... Read more »

How Migration Spurs Battles over Women

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Tuesday, 10 March 2015

(This post was originally published on Jørgen Carling’s personal web site.) Migration affects the lives of women in many ways. One subtle but critical mechanism lies in disputes over ‘who’ migrant women are. Migration researchers can play a role in making the battles apparent and showing how they matter. I ... Read more »

Filipino Migration is Extraordinary

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Sunday, 3 August 2014

The population of the Philippines is surpassing 100 million in late July 2014. That’s a reminder of the country’s importance in global migration. Emigration generally has the strongest impacts in countries with relatively small populations, such as El Salvador, Armenia and Samoa. In fact, as the scatterplot shows, only five ... Read more »

Terror Attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011

Posted by Jørgen Carling on Sunday, 7 August 2011

A lot has already been written about the the events of 22 July 2011 their consequences. For me, the first weeks have been filled with emotionally draining experiences, coupled with debates that I haven’t felt prepared to engage in. Trying to see it all from a bit of distance, beyond ... Read more »

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