Coordinator: Stine Bergersen

​​​​What does it mean to be secure in today’s world? The Security research group focuses on the changing landscape of security actors (state and non-state, the European Union, NATO, United Nations) and practices, aiming to recast and develop the concept of security through new approaches and methodologies.

​The Security research group promotes original analyses of:

  • Threats (political, military, societal)
  • Objects of security (individuals, communities, states, economic and ecological systems and infrastructures)
  • Security technologies (e.g. biometrics, explosive detection)
  • Methodologies (scenario-planning, risk assessment, preparedness, threat enactment).

Research themes

  • Societal security
  • Crisis management and resilience
  • Conflict prevention and peace-building
  • Security politics of humanitarianism and migration
  • Security foresighting and trend analysis
  • Human security
  • Cyber security
  • Financial security
  • Terrorism and radicalization 
  • Securitization
  • Gender and security
  • Media and security​

Discipline and methodology

The Security research group combines and invites researchers from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, such as political science, international relations/critical security studies, law, sociology, war and peace studies, philosophy, cultural studies, and criminology. Methodologically the group focuses on qualitative research such as interviews, document analyses and case studies. The group takes a critical approach to security, drawing on governmentality studies and genealogy, conceptual and cultural history, political philosophy, media studies, and social theory, and endorsing self-reflective and non- Euro-centric perspectives. 

We are interested in overarching research questions, such as:

  • What role do security rationalities, technologies and practices play in the governance of societies? 
  • How can we prevent and deal with conflict or crises?
  • How are threats framed and communicated?
  • What are the epistemic strategies employed in the governance of the future and how are they changing?
  • What are ethical challenges of contemporary security governance?
  • How are security problems perceived and approached in different regions of the world? 



Current Projects

Past Projects

Research Group News

Upcoming Events

Past Events


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Lidén, Kristoffer; Nona Mikhelidze; Elena B. Stavrevska & Birte Vogel (2016) EU support to civil society organizations in conflict-ridden countries: A governance perspective from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus and Georgia, International Peacekeeping 23(2): 274–301.
Kaufmann, Mareile (2015) Das Unbekannte regieren: Risiko trifft Resilienz, Kriminologisches Journal 47(4): 264–278.
Kaufmann, Mareile (2015) Exercising emergencies: Resilience, affect and acting out security, Security Dialogue [Online First]. DOI: 10.1177/0967010615613209: 1–18.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2015) African Drone Stories, BEHEMOTH a Journal on Civilisation 8(2): 73–96.
Boy, Nina (2015) Sovereign safety, Security Dialogue 46(6): 530–547.
Bellanova, Rocco (2015) Nurturing Ob-Scene Politics: Surveillance Between In/Visibility and Dis-Appearance, Surveillance & Society 13(3): 512–527.
Kaufmann, Mareile (2015) Resilience governance and ecosystemic space: a critical perspective on the EU approach to Internet security, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 33(3): 512–527.
Abrahamsen, Eirik Bjorheim; Kenneth Pettersen; Terje Aven; Mareile Kaufmann & Tony Rosqvist (2015) A framework for selection of strategy for management of security measures, Journal of Risk Research. DOI: 10.1080/13669877.2015.1057205.
Kaufmann, Mareile (2015) Resilience 2.0: social media use and (self-)care during the 2011 Norway attacks, Media, Culture & Society 37(7): 972–987.
Wright, David; Rowena Rodrigues; Charles Raab; Richard Jones; Ivan Szekely; Kirstie Ball; Rocco Bellanova & Stine Bergersen (2015) Questioning Surveillance, Computer Law & Security Review 31(2): 280–292.
Cavelty, Myriam Dunn; Mareile Kaufmann & Kristian Søby Kristensen (2015) Resilience and (in)security: Practices, subjects, temporalities, Security Dialogue 46(1): 3–14.
Bergersen, Stine (2014) Overvåkning og personvern: Om innsynsrett i teori og praksis, Materialisten. Tidsskrift For Forskning, Fagkritikk Og Teoretisk Debatt 14(3): 47–65.
Bellanova, Rocco (2014) Data Protection, with Love, International Political Sociology 8(1): 112–115.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert; John Karlsrud & Mareile Kaufmann (2014) Humanitarian technology: a critical research agenda, International Review of the Red Cross. DOI: 10.1017/S1816383114000344.
Duez, Denis & Rocco Bellanova (2013) Le citoyen face aux nouvelles pratiques sécuritaires de l'Union Européenne : enjeux démocratiques d’une sécurité par les fichiers [Building Security on Citizens' Data: Democratic Issues of New European Security Practices], Espace Populations Sociétés 349–62.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2013) Controlling the Mediterranean Space through Surveillance: The Politics and Discourse of Surveillance as an All-encompassing Solution to EU Maritime Border Management Issues, Espace Populations Sociétés 2012(3): 35–48.
Tunander, Ola (2013) Subs and PSYOPs: The 1982 Swedish Submarine Intrusions, Intelligence and National Security 28(2): 252 – 281 (First published electronically 13 July 2012, pp. 30).
Kaufmann, Mareile (2013) Emergent self-organisation in emergencies: resilience rationales in interconnected societies, Resilience: International Policies, Practices and Discourses 1(1): 53–68.
Liden, Kristoffer (2013) In love with a lie? On the social and political preconditions for global peacebuilding governance, Peacebuilding 1(1): 73–90.
Lohne, Kjersti (2012) The Norwegian Data Inspectorate: Between Governance and Resistance, Surveillance & Society 10(2): 182–196.
Vermeulen, Mathias; & Rocco Bellanova (2012) European ‘Smart’ Surveillance: What’s at Stake for Data Protection, Privacy and Non-Discrimination?, Security and Human Rights 23(4): 297–311.
Bellanova, Rocco & Denis Duez (2012) A Different View on the 'Making' of European Security: The EU Passenger Name Record System as a Socio-Technical Assemblage, European Foreign Affairs Review 17(2): 109–124.
Tunander, Ola (2012) Samtidshistoria, internationella relationer och källproblematiken [Contemporary history, internatinal relations and the problem with sources] , Internasjonal Politikk 70(4): 474–498.
Jacobsen, Elida K. U. (2012) Unique Identification: Inclusion and Surveillance in the Indian Biometric Assemblage, Security Dialogue 43(5): 457–474.
Baev, Pavel K. (2012) Russian Energy as a Challenge and a Bonus for European Security, Studia Diplomatica 64(1): 91–100.
Boy, Nina;Burgess, J. Peter; & Leander, Anna (2011) The Global Governance of Finance and Security: Introduction to the Special Issue , Security Dialogue 42(2): 115–122.
Carling, Jørgen; & Hernández Carretero, María (2011) Protecting Europe and Protecting Migrants? Strategies for Managing Unauthorised Migration from Africa , British Journal of Politics and International Relations 13(1): 42–58.
Carling, Jørgen (2007) Migration Control and Migrant Fatalities at the Spanish-African Borders , International Migration Review 41(2): 316–343.

PhD Thesis

Kaufmann, Mareile (2016) Resilience - governance and in/security in interconnected societies. PhD thesis, Criminology, Hamburg University.
Jacobsen, Elida K. U. (2015) Unique Biometric IDs: Governmentality and Appropriation in a Digital . PhD thesis, School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2014) Between Intervention and Sovereignty: Ethics of Liberal Peacebuilding and the Philosophy of Global Governance. PhD thesis, Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas, University of Oslo, Oslo.
Boy, Nina (2013) The Security of Public Credit. PhD thesis, Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion, Lancaster University, Lancaster.


(2004) The Secret War against Sweden - US and British Submarine Deception in the 1980s. : Frank Cass. .
(2001) Hårsfjärden - Det hemliga ubåtskriget mot Sverige [Hårsfjärden - The Secret Submarine War against Sweden]. : Norstedts Förlag. .

Book Chapter

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Public Order Drone: Promises, Proliferation and Disorder in Civil Airspace, in The Good Drone. London: Ashgate .
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2016) The Political and Moral Economies of Dual Technology Transfers: Arming Police Drones, in Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems. Berlin: Springer International Publishing .
Lidén, Kristoffer & Elida K. U. Jacobsen (2016) The local is everywhere: a postcolonial reassessment of cultural sensitivity in conflict governance, in Cultures of Governance and Peace: a Comparison of EU and Indian Theoretical and Policy Approaches. Manchester: Manchester University Press .
Lidén, Kristoffer & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Poison Pill or Cure-All: Drones and the Protection of Civilians, in Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, The Good Drone. London: Ashgate. London: Ashgate .
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen & Kristin Bergtora Sandvik (2016) Introduction: What Does It Take to Be Good?, in The Good Drone. London: Ashgate .
Boy, Nina (2015) Financial security, in Schlag, Gabi; Julian Junk; & Christopher Daase, eds, Transformations of Security Studies: Dialogues, Diversity and Discipline. Abingdon: Routledge (156–170).
Lidén, Kristoffer & Henrik Syse (2015) The Politics of Peace and Law: Realism, Internationalism and the Cosmopolitan Challenge, in Larsen, Kjetil M. ; & Cecilia Bailliet, eds, Promoting Peace Through International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press (21–42).
Duez, Denis & Rocco Bellanova (2014) Humains et non-humains dans la fabrique des frontières de l’Europe: une approche in medias res de l’européanisation [Humans and Non-Humans in the making of European Borders: A Proposal for a 'In Medias Res' Approach of Europeanization], in Denis Duez, ed., L'européanisation - Sciences Humaines Et Nouveaux Enjeux. Bruxelles: Bruylant (223–247).
Boy, Nina (2014) The backstory of the risk-free asset: how government debt became "safe", in Goodhart, Charles; Daniela Gabor; Ismail Ertuerk; & Jakob Vestergaard, eds, Central Banking at a Crossroads. London: Anthem Press (177–187).
Bellanova, Rocco & Paul De Hert (2014) Practices and Modes of Transatlantic Data-Processing. From Sorting Countries to Sorting Individuals?, in The Routledge Handbook of European Criminology. London: Routledge (514–535).
Boy, Nina (2014) Oeffentlichkeit als public credit [The 'public' of public credit], in Langenohl, Andreas; & Dietmar J. Wetzel, eds, Finanzmarktpublika: Moralitaet, Krisen Und Teilhabe In Der Oekonomischen Moderne/ Financial Market Publics: Morality, Crises and Participation In Economic Modernity. Wiesbaden: Springer VS/ Springer Science and Business Media B.V. (301–317).
Jacobsen, Elida K. U. & Samrat Schmiem Kumar (2014) The Plurality of Peace, Non-Violence and Peace works in India, in Upadhyaya, Priyankar; & Samrat Schmiem Kumar, eds, Peace and Conflict - the South Asian Experience. New Delhi: Cambridge University Press India .
Jacobsen, Elida K. U. (2013) Preventing, predicting or producing risk? India`s national biometric identification, in Kolås, Åshild; & Jason Miklian, eds, India`S Human Security. Lost Debates, Forgotten People, Intractable Conflicts. New York: Routledge .
Brekke, Torkel (2012) Hinduism and Security, in Seiple, Chris; Dennis R. Hoover; & Pauletta Otis, eds, Routledge Handbook of Religion and Security. New York: Routledge (80–94).
Tunander, Ola (2012) Dual State: The Case of Sweden, in Eric Wilson, ed., The Dual State: Parapolitics, Carl Schmitt and the National Security Complex. Ashgate (171–192).
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum; & Lidén, Kristoffer (2012) Theoretical Challenges for Assessing Socio-Cultural Sensitivity in Governance and Conflict Resolution [15 May] Norms and Premises of Peace Governance. Socio-Cultural Commonalities and Differences In Europe and India . Berghof Foundation(25–30).
Carling, Jørgen(2011) The European Paradox of Unwanted Migration A Threat Against Europe? Security, Migration and Integration. : Brussels University Press (VUB)(33–46).

Edited Volume

Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, eds, (2016) The Good Drone. London: Ashgate.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Carling, Jørgen (2007) The Merits and Limitations of Spain's High-Tech Border Control , Migration Information Source .

Popular Article

Tank, Pinar & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert (2016) Flyktningavtalen mellom EU og Tyrkia er kostbar - særlig for flyktningene [The EU-Turkey Deal is Costly - Especially for the Refugees], Aftenposten.
Sagmo, Tove Heggli ; Marta Bivand Erdal; Rojan Tordhol Ezzati; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Håvard Mokleiv Nygård (2015) Innvandringsdebatt på feil premisser [Wrong premises for the debate about immigration into Europe], NRK Ytring.
Syse, Henrik (2015) Fire år etter terroren: De viktige debattene [Four years after the terror: The important debates], VG, 22.07.2015.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2014) Flytkningene er et felles ansvar [Refugees are a shared responsibility], NRK Ytring.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora; Nicholas Marsh & Maral Mirshahi (2014) The Struggle to Ban Killer Robots, Bullentin of Atomic Scientists.

Master Thesis

(2007) Norwegian Media Discourses and the Middle-Eastern Other. Identity and Security.Universitat Jaume 1, .
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum (2007) Norwegian Media Discourses and the Middle-Eastern Other. Identity and Security.Universitat Jaume 1, .

Conference Paper

Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) Oiling the Machinery of European Security Technology? The role of ethics in EU Security Research, presented at International Studies Association, Annual Convention , New Orleans, 21 Februrary 2015.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) What ‘society’ must be defended? The ethics of societal security in Norway, presented at Worlds of Violence: 9th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, European International Studies Association, Giardini Naxos, Sicily, Italy , 26 September.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) Luhmann goes to Juba: a systems theoretical perspective on the postliberal condition, presented at Worlds of Violence: 9th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, European International Studies Association, Giardini Naxos, Sicily, Italy , 26 September 2015.
Bergersen, Stine (2014) Risk, Security and New Threats: Counter Terrorism Policies in Norway 2001-2008, presented at From Schauman to Breivik: Terrorism, Political Violence and the Nordic Countries, Helsinki University, 16.–17.06.2014.
Bergersen, Stine (2014) Norwegian security- and intelligence arrangements: democratic oversight and EU- cooperation., presented at Security, intelligence and EU cooperation: Scotland's comparator countries., University of Edinburgh & ESRC (Economic & Social Research Council), 06.05.2014.
Kaufmann, Mareile (2013) Resilience Regulation and Networked SpacesAntwerp, Belgium, 23–24 January 2013.
Kaufmann, Mareile (2012) Resilience Governance and Networked Space, presented at Practices of Resilience Workshop, Copenhagen, 13.12.2012.
Kaufmann, Mareile 2012 Embracing unknowns: Emergency, resilience and the epistemology of complexity, presented at COST Action: IS1003 "Anticipatory Knowledge in International Law" , , 17.09.2012–18.09.2012.
Kaufmann, Mareile 2012 Networks, Security and Resilience, presented at ICTs and Global Governance, , 28.09.2012–29.09.2012.
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum 2012 Identification and Financial Inclusion: Gendering the biometric enrolment of homeless in Delhi, presented at 2012 annual NFU conference: Development for a Finite Planet: Grassroots perspectives and responses to climate change, resource extraction and economic development, , .
Lidén, Kristoffer 2012 In Love with a Lie? On the Political Preconditions for Global Peacebuilding Governance, presented at New Frontiers for Peacebuilding: Hybridity, Governance, and Local Agency, , 13–14 September 2012.
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum 2012 Ethical and Societal Implications of National Biometric Identification, presented at New Delhi: The High Level Privacy Conclave, , .
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum; & Lidén, Kristoffer 2011 Theoretical Challenges for Assessing Socio-Cultural Sensitivity in Conflict Governance, presented at CORE, , .
Kaufmann, Mareile 2011 Terrorism and Security in Norway - Recent Developments in Law and Intelligence Governance, presented at CASIS Annual Conference 2011, , 09 November 2011.
Lohne, Kjersti (2010) Humanitarianism and International Criminal Justice, presented at New Landscapes of Justice and Security, University of Oslo, 14.06.2010.
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum 2008 'Our' values and the 'Other': The West, Islam, and (Counter) Discourses of Enmity in the Mass-Media, presented at Propaganda: War and Biopolitics, Oslo: HL Senteret, , .
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum 2008 Media Coverage of Islam, presented at Popular Lecture. Oslo: HL Senteret, , .

PRIO Policy Brief

Rasmussen , Joel & Øyvind Ihlen (2015) Lessons from Norwegian Emergency Authorities’ Use of Social Media, PRIO Policy Brief, 14. Oslo: PRIO.
Vogel, Birte & Oliver P. Richmond (2013) Enabling civil society in conflict resolution, CORE Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Behera, Navnita Chadha (2013) Conflict, governance and peacebuilding in Kashmir, CORE Policy Brief, 10. Oslo: PRIO.
Amin, Imran & Amit Prakash (2013) Conflict, governance and development, CORE Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Stavrevska, Elena B. (2013) Ensuring political representation in a restructured Bosnia and Herzegovina, CORE Policy Brief, 1. Oslo: PRIO.
DasGupta, Sumona & Priyanka Singh (2013) Village council elections in Jammu and Kashmir, CORE Policy Brief, 6. Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.
Jacobsen, Elida K. U. & Priyanka Vij (2013) India's national biometric ID scheme, CORE Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Ghosh, Atig (2013) Governing conflict and peacebuilding in India’s northeast and Bihar, CORE Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Upadhyaya, Anjoo Sharan; Priyankar Upadhyaya & Ajay Kumar Yadav (2013) Interrogating peace in Meghalaya, CORE Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Mikhelidze, Nona (2013) Opening the Russian–Georgian railway link through Abkhazia, CORE Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Bernhard, Anna & Janel B. Galvanek (2013) The importance of dialogical relations and local agency in governance initiatives for conflict resolution, CORE Policy Brief, 9. Oslo: PRIO.
Leander, Anna (2012) Commercial Politics of Peace. Military Markets Recasting European Engagements in Afghanistan, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Leander, Anna (2012) Letting Others Lead. European Approaches to the Regulation of International Military Markets, PRIO Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Leander, Anna (2012) Silent and Irresponsible. European Approaches to Commercial Military Services, PRIO Policy Brief, 6. Oslo: PRIO.
Sandvik, Kristin Bergtora (2012) Cyberwar as an Issue of International law, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter (2012) The Societal Impact of Security Research, PRIO Policy Brief, 9. Oslo: PRIO.
Mironenko, Olga (2010) Data Protection and Security in Civil Aviation, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter (2008) Human Values and Security Technologies, PRIO Policy Brief, 7. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter & Naima Mouhleb (2008) International Collaboration on Societal Security: NATO, the EU, the UN and Norway, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter (2008) Security after Privacy, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter (2008) Security as Ethics, PRIO Policy Brief, 6. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter & Sissel Haugdal Jore (2008) The Influence of Globalization on Societal Security: The International Setting, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter & Sissel Haugdal Jore (2008) The Influence of Globalization on Societal Security: The Norwegian Context, PRIO Policy Brief, 4. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter & Naima Mouhleb (2007) A Presentation of the State of Societal Security in Norway, PRIO Policy Brief, 9. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter & Sonja Kittelsen (2007) Between Prevention and Preparedness: The European Commission’s Green Paper on Bio-preparedness, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Burgess, J. Peter & Naima Mouhleb (2007) Societal Security: Definitions and Scope for the Norwegian Setting, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Boy, Nina (2015) SOURCE deliverable 5.3 Analytic report on the impact of the financial crisis on societal security.
Boy, Nina (2015) SOURCE deliverable 5.2 Report on the role of financial regulation in the provision of security.
Boy, Nina (2015) SOURCE deliverable 5.1 Report on the theory of risk as a societal security instrument, SOURCE Social Security Network. .
Lidén, Kristoffer; & Benjamen Hayes (2015) Report on human values in threat analysis, SOURCE Deliverables, 6.1. SOURCE Virtual Centre of Excellence For Research Support and Coordination on Societal Security.
Lidén, Kristoffer (2015) Ethics Report 1, SOURCE Deliverables, 2. SOURCE Virtual Centre of Excellence For Research Support and Coordination on Societal Security.
Bergersen, Stine; Mareile Kaufmann; & Merle Missoweit (2014) DRIVER Deliverable 91.3 – Ethical Procedures, Risks and Safeguards, Driving Innovation For Crisis Management For European Resilience (DRIVER). Oslo: PRIO.
Kaufmann, Mareile; & Stine Bergersen (2014) DRIVER Deliverable 93.1 - Identification of opportunities for positive societal impact of CM, Driving Innovation For Crisis Management For European Resilience (DRIVER). Oslo: PRIO.
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2012) Overview report on trans-national and European law and regulation relative to maritime border control13.2. : Protection of European Borders and Seas Through the Intelligent Use of Surveillance (PERSEUS).
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2012) Report on relevant legal, ethical and rights issues on data collection, retention and transmission13.5. : Protection of European Borders and Seas Through the Intelligent Use of Surveillance (PERSEUS).
Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen; & Lidén, Kristoffer (2012) International survey of relevant national, EU and intergovernmental security policies13.1. : Protection of European Borders and Seas Through the Intelligent Use of Surveillance (PERSEUS).
Kaufmann, Mareile (2011) 3.2 ValueSec Catalogue of evaluated Methodologies and Tools available, which address security decisions FP7 Project "Mastering the Value Function of Security Measures" (Valuesec).
Kaufmann, Mareile (2011) 2.1 ValueSec Decision Domains, Concepts and Trends relevant for Security Decisions: FP7 Project "Mastering the Value Function of Security Measures" (Valuesec).
Kaufmann, Mareile (2011) 3.1 ValueSec Framework for the Assessment of Methods and Tools, which address security decisions: FP7 Project "Mastering the Value Function of Security Measures" (Valuesec).
Kaufmann, Mareile (2011) 3.3 ValueSec Evaluation of Methods and Tools, and the required improvements: FP7 Project "Mastering the Value Function of Security Measures" (Valuesec).
Moe-Pryce, Marit; & Gräns, Jonas (2010) Working paper analyzing the transformation of gendered security values as a result of the evolution of security technologies: .

Report - External Series

Sondergaard, Susanne; Giacomo Persi Paoli; Kate Robertson; Richard Warnes; Lindsay Clutterbuck; Rocco Bellanova; Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert; Ingrid Solberg; & Joanna Pilner (2015) TACTICS: Policy and strategic impacts, implications and recommendations, Research Reports. London: RAND.
Gräns, Jonas; & Sira, Inger Helene (2010) The Promotion of Human Security in EU Security Policies, INEX Policy Brief Series, 7. : .

Book Review

Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen (2012) Review of Protecting Our Ports: Domestic and International Politics of Containerized Freight Security, in Journal of Peace Research 49(3): .
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum(2012) Review of Security, Risk and the Biometric State: Governing Borders and Bodies (Benjamin J. Muller) 745–745.
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum(2010) Review of Media, Wars and Politics: Comparing the Incomparable in Western and Eastern Europe (Ekaterina Balabanova, 2007) 99.
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum(2009) Review of European Security Culture: Language, Theory, Policy (Monica Gariup) 855.
Jacobsen, Elida Kristine Undrum(2006) Review of Journalists Under Fire: Information War and Journalistic Practice (Howard Tumber & Frank Webster) 641.

Blog Posts

India’s Membership of the Missile Technology Control Regime

Posted by Rajiv Nayan & Åshild Kolås on Thursday, 18 August 2016

India became the 35th member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) on 27 June 2016. The MTCR is an informal and voluntary association of suppliers of ballistic and cruise missiles capable of delivering Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), and other unmanned aerial vehicles. It was established in 1987 with merely seven countries. Though the MTCR does not force any of its members to take ‘legally binding obligations’, in reality, members normally incorporate decisions taken in the informal body. During the Cold War, as more countries joined the MTCR, there were frequent struggles among its members over harmonization. In 1992, ...

Several Securities at Stake in Rio?

Posted by Eric Cezne on Thursday, 4 August 2016

This Friday the iconic Maracanã stadium in Rio is set to host the opening ceremony of the 2016 Olympic Games. For the first time in South America, the world yet again comes together to celebrate sports, unity and diversity. Against the backdrop of turbulent times marked by all sorts of global economic, geopolitical and humanitarian challenges, the Olympic enterprise has traditionally promoted a sports-for-good rhetoric, and the games are often portrayed as one of the best tools the international community has at its disposal to highlight values linked to peace and global cohesion. The run-up to the games in Rio, ...

Receding into the Background?

Posted by Henrik Syse on Wednesday, 20 July 2016

As 22 July 2011 becomes a more distant memory, we are overwhelmed with massacres and terrorist attacks in other parts of the world, including fierce attacks in Turkey, France, and the United States. At the time of writing, the terrorist attack in Nice, France, is the most recent. Many of these attacks seem to be masterminded by the terrorist group ISIS, reflecting an extreme Islamist ideology and a wish to spread fear and terror in as many communities as possible. What does this do to our memory of 22 July? There are at least three possible paths that our thinking ...

France’s Response to Terror

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Tuesday, 19 July 2016

Following the terror attack in Nice, the French President Hollande has responded to mounting criticism by sharpening both his rhetoric and the country’s proposed reactions to terror. But no society can be protected against all risks, and anti-terror efforts do not always have the intended effects. Within a split second, in the afternoon of 14 July, the beach promenade in Nice turned into a scene of terror . The weapon was an ordinary truck. The perpetrator was a petty criminal, a Tunisian citizen, with no known extremist propensities. It is not yet clear whether he carried out the attack alone, ...

Framing the UCLA Shooting Event

Posted by Francis Steen on Monday, 18 July 2016

Wednesday June 1st was my last day of Spring Quarter teaching at UCLA. At 9:50am, a BruinAlert trickled into my inbox announcing “Police Activity at Engineering Building 4. Avoid area until further notice” and a few minutes later “Shooting at Engineering 4. Go to secure location and deny entry (lockdown) now!” I did not notice, as I was busy preparing for my review lecture at 11:30am; I also did not see the flood of e-mails from students starting at 10am saying: “I just heard there’s a shooter loose on campus and I’m staying home”. At 10:15am, NBC interrupted its regular ...

The Right to Decide: Exit and Basque Self-Determination

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Tuesday, 28 June 2016

Five years ago, the Basque militant group ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom) announced a unilateral and permanent cessation of operations. Since then, the disappearance of political violence has given rise to a new debate on Basque nationhood: more inclusive, more open, more civic, and at the same time stronger in its affirmation of the legitimacy of popular sovereignty and the democratic demand to exercise ‘the right to decide’, as against the earlier radicalism of immediate independence. A new book edited by Pedro Ibarra Güell and Åshild Kolås, Basque Nationhood Towards a Democratic Scenario, takes stock of the contemporary re-imagining of ...

Syria Travellers and Security Threats

Posted by Åshild Kolås & Katrine Fangen on Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Foreign fighters returning from Syria have emerged as a looming security threat in many European countries, so also in Norway. As well as preventive measures against radicalization and mobilization by the Islamic State, there have been calls for the withdrawal of citizenship and deportation of returned foreign fighters. This raises a number of questions. Are Norwegians more secure if we send potential terrorists out of the country? Is this even feasible, if Norway wants to stay within the ‘border-free’ Europe? What are the trade-offs between security and civil rights to citizenship, and how can they best be balanced? Is citizenship essentially something that needs to be earned, or is ...

The ‘Sovereign’ according to Ola Tunander

Posted by Åshild Kolås on Monday, 30 May 2016

On Friday 27 May 2016, PRIO celebrated Ola Tunander’s 30-year academic career with a seminar on ‘Sovereignty, Subs and PSYOPS’, and a reception. The celebration was, of course, focused on Ola and his work, spanning topics from the geopolitics and organic state theory of Rudolf Kjellén to the 27 October 1981 ‘Whiskey on the Rocks’ submarine crash in the Swedish Archipelago. Obviously, sovereignty was a key topic of the seminar, and is arguably also the critical theme of Ola’s work. As a digital footnote to the seminar, and a distillation of the ‘sovereign’ according to Ola Tunander, here are some ...

The EU-Turkey Refugee Deal is Costly – Especially for the Refugees

Posted by Pinar Tank & Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Thursday, 7 April 2016

The agreement reflects the EU’s self-interest just as much as Turkey’s, but takes little account of the interests and rights of the refugees. On Friday 18 March, Turkey and the EU concluded a deal designed to put an end to refugees’ use of the sea route to travel from Turkey to Greece, because the route is costing too many lives, and because the EU and Turkey want to get the flood of refugees under control. The majority of the refugees and migrants who have arrived in Europe in recent months have travelled via this route. The EU’s website claims that ...

From the House of Cards to House of Data?

Posted by Rocco Bellanova on Thursday, 10 March 2016

The fourth season of the Netflix series House of Cards was released worldwide on the 4th March. Which is to say, the week-end when many International Relations (IR) researchers are still rushing to finalize their conference paper for the annual convention of the International Studies Association (ISA). And, if you are reading this post, you are probably feeling guilty for having spent the weekend binge-watching the series, instead of reworking your draft one more time. I certainly do. However, as the series teaches us again and again, we should not let guilt rule us. Better run ahead, even if this ...

Is Apple the New Global Dictator?

Posted by Hanne Eggen Røislien & Bjarte Malmedal on Friday, 26 February 2016

Apple, CISCO and Microsoft rule the world, and intend to do so. Imagine if CISCO or Apple held a general election. Billboards with potential board members smiling at us with an apple in one hand and a ballot in the other. Anyone who owns a computer or an iPad or a smartphone would be legitimate voters in the election. The ballot boxes would probably be flash and fancy. No paper involved. We would cast our ballots by pushing a button or using just our fingerprint or perhaps another way of casting a ballot that as of 2016 is not yet ...

The Discreet Charm of Passenger Data: Big Data Surveillance Coming Home

Posted by Rocco Bellanova on Thursday, 14 January 2016

Several governments see in the mass-surveillance of passenger data the key tool of counter-terrorism. These data are generally known as PNR – Passenger Name Records, and their potential for law enforcement has been discussed at least since the 1990s. Now European Union (EU) debates about the creation of a European PNR scheme seem settled once and for all. Others have already provided legal analyses of the measure to come. Here the goal is different: I aim to show how urgent it is to start researching the political dimensions of this security program right when all politics fade away. While PNR ...

How Much Should we Tolerate?

Posted by Henrik Syse on Friday, 27 November 2015

In his New Year’s Eve speech last year, King Harald used the expression “We should say kind words”. Some weeks later, many of us were saying “Je suis Charlie”, expressing solidarity with a periodical that published satire that many people certainly found was not kind at all. Can we reconcile these sentiments? Yes, I believe so. Where we stand in the debate about freedom of expression and the responsibility that comes with that freedom will often depend upon which side of the debate we are arguing from. A person who is fearful that freedom of expression is under attack in ...

The Threat from ISIS is not Military

Posted by John Mueller on Wednesday, 25 November 2015

For more than a decade, alarmists have essentially argued that, because the 9/11 attackers proved to be good with box-cutters, they would soon be able to fabricate nuclear weapons. And now, after the dramatic and horrible Paris terror attacks, a similar process of alarmed exaggeration seems to be happening with ISIS. In a reactive pose that has become routine for it, the group has claimed responsibility for — or, more accurately, boorishly celebrated — the tragic venture. In fact, whatever its degree of complicity in the Paris attacks, ISIS does not deserve credit for great military prowess. Its ability to ...

A Close Look at Border Security in the Mediterranean

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Monday, 1 June 2015

The EU’s response to the increased flow of refugees crossing the Mediterranean has been to boost border security by means of Operation Triton, which is the responsibility of Frontex, the EU border agency. There is little one can do, however, to impose effective border controls at sea. Operation Triton does not have a search-and-rescue mandate, even though it is for search-and-rescue that surveillance has the greatest potential to play a positive role. In the fear that search-and-rescue capacity would make it slightly easier for boat refugees to reach Europe, border surveillance operations are being promoted as a more “effective” response. ...

Boko Haram does not have the Fire Power of the Islamic State

Posted by Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos on Friday, 23 January 2015

Boko Haram’s influence and cruelty is still increasing. On the 3rd of January the Islamist group first attacked Baga, situated at the riverside of Lake Chad in the north of the State of Borno. They then came back several days later and demolished the entire city and its surrounding villages. The attack reportedly caused more than 2000 victims, although the numbers are not verifiable. The Nigerian army considers it as the most deadly attack since the beginning of the Islamist insurrection in 2009, so fare causing more than 13 000 causalities.  Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos, specialist on Nigeria, and PRIO ...

Surveillance Under Control?1/a>

Posted by Nils Petter Gleditsch on Wednesday, 21 January 2015

We cannot make do without surveillance, and even political actors must expect to be kept under observation if they espouse extreme positions. But we must keep surveillance under control. This article tells the story of the information about me that had lain in the files of the police security service and to which I gained access in 2001. It also records some reflections that have emerged in my mind about ways to improve legal protection for people who come to the attention of the state security services.2 As one author summed up the new women’s movement of the 1970s, ‘What ...

Refugees are a Shared Responsibility

Posted by Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert on Tuesday, 23 September 2014

A record number of refugees have arrived by boat in southern Europe this summer. Norway should voice its support for a common European solution to the issue of boat migrants crossing the Mediterranean. Last year this would have been front-page news, but now each new arrival – or each refugee boat that is lost at sea – is just one more in a series. Estimates suggest that more than 100,000 refugees have arrived by boat so far this year. This is a dramatic figure. The previous record was 63,000 for the whole of 2011, which was the year the Arab ...

Edward Snowden: the last Big Brother?

Posted by Rocco Bellanova & Gloria González Fuster on Tuesday, 13 May 2014

Following last year’s revelations, Edward Snowden seems to be trapped in a role ironically reminiscent of another famous character – George Orwell’s Big Brother. You are being watched. This classical surveillance slogan hides a subtler, and more insidious message: you must believe you are always being watched, and you probably are, but you will never be certain of that, or get the full picture of how. That is the logic behind the motto. And on this logic relies the functioning of surveillance’s ghostly dynamics: a logic of uncertainty and fear…. Read more in the original article that was published 13 May 2014 ...

The Syrian Refugee Crisis and Conflict Spillover

Posted by Kristian Skrede Gleditsch & Idean Salehyan on Tuesday, 11 February 2014

The Syrian refugee crisis has been heartbreaking to watch. According to the United Nations, over 2.4 million people have fled the country, and many more have been displaced internally. This human tragedy has shocked the world’s conscience and has led for appeals for humanitarian relief. However, does the influx of hundreds of thousands of refugees also pose security challenges for host countries? Today, PRIO researcher Kristian Skrede Gleditsch and Idean Salehyan have published a guest blog post on Political Violence @ a Glance. 

Give Us Your Phone and We May Grant You Asylum

Posted by Rocco Bellanova, Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert & Raphael Gellert on Monday, 17 October 2016

Images of refugees using smartphones have now become common in the Western media landscape, and everybody seems to have learned that refugees and migrants, too, use smartphones. Indicative of this awareness, European governments are now looking into how to make use of these assets in their identity checks and in the processing of asylum seekers’ demands. As such, smartphones are not just a key tool for surviving long and dangerous journeys, but also an asset that makes anyone using it more vulnerable to digital surveillance. In this blog post, we discuss how smartphones are becoming the new best and worst ...