Cindy Horst

Research Director, Research Professor

Cindy Horst
Email: cindy@prio.org
Work phone: +47 22 54 77 49
Twitter: @CindyMHorst

Research Interests

Cindy Horst is Research Professor in Migration and Refugee Studies at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO). Her current research interests include: mobility in conflict; diaspora; humanitarianism; refugee protection; transnational civic engagement; and theorizing on societal transformation. She is particularly interested in methodological innovations that allow for critical and ethically conscious research engagement, through shared anthropology and multi-sited ethnography. Cindy is the author of Transnational Nomads: How Somalis cope with refugee life in the Dadaab camps of Kenya (Berghahn 2006). Her most recent publications include 'Governing mobility through humanitarianism in South-central Somalia' (Development and Change 2016) with Anab Nur, 'Migrants as agents of development: European diaspora engagement discourse and the essentialisation of diaspora roots'. (Ethnicities 2015) with Giulia Sinatti and 'Flight and Exile. Uncertainty in the Context of Conflict-induced displacement (Social Analysis 2015) with Katarzyna Grabska.

Background

​​​​​​​​Research Areas of Interest:

* Active citizenship

* Mobility and transnationalism affecting (national) identities
* The impact of transnationalism on (post-)conflict situations
* Interactions between refugees and the refugee regime
* Refugee Livelihoods
* Diaspora Engagements
* Ethical and Methodological challenges of fieldwork in conflict situations

Languages spoken:

Dutch (mother tongue), English (fluent), Norwegian (good), German, (intermediate), French (basic), Somali (basic),

Work Experience:

Moderator of the Refugee Livelihoods Network, UNHCR
Researcher and Lecturer on forced migration, University of Amsterdam

Education:

2003: PhD in Social Sciences on migration and transnationalism among Somalis, University of Amsterdam
1997: Foundation Course on Forced Migration, Centre for Refugee Studies, Oxford University
1996: MA in Cultural & Social Anthropology, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen ​

Research Groups

Full member:
Associated member:

PRIO Departments

Current
Historical

PRIO Projects

Ongoing:
Finished:

Events

PRIO started tracking events online in 2007. This listing is not complete. Past events may be mentioned in our news archive.

Publications

Cindy Horst is the author of the monograph Transnational Nomads, which discusses refugee livelihoods in and transnational connections from/to Dadaab. There is a tendency to consider all refugees as 'vulnerable victims': an attitude reinforced by the stream of images depicting refugees living in abject conditions. This study of Somalis in a Kenyan refugee camp reveals the inadequacy of such assumptions by describing the rich personal and social histories that refugees bring with them to the camps. Furthermore, Cindy has published in African Studies; Afrika Spectrum; Conflict, Security and Development; Development and Change; Ethnicities; Global Networks; International Migration Review; Journal of Refugee Studies; Refuge; Refugee Survey Quarterly; and Social Analysis; and is the contributor to numerous edited volumes. 

Recent publications

Horst, Cindy & Nasra Jama (2016) Resources for Health Care in Somaliland: From the International to the Communal?, PRIO Policy Brief, 23. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy & Elin Martine Doeland (2016) Introducing a Women’s Empowerment Agenda from Abroad? Gender and Stability in Somalia, PRIO Policy Brief, 13. Oslo: PRIO.

All publications

Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Horst, Cindy & Anab Nur (2016) Governing mobility through humanitarianism in South-central Somalia: compromising protection for the sake of return?, Development and Change 47(3): 542–562.
Horst, Cindy & katarzyna grabska (2015) Flight and Exile—Uncertainty in the Context of Conflict-induced displacement, Social Analysis: Journal of Cultural and Social Practice 59(1): 1–18.
Sinatti, Giulia & Cindy Horst (2015) Migrants as agents of development: Diaspora engagement discourse and practice in Europe, Ethnicities 15(1): 134–152.
Horst, Cindy; Marta Bivand Erdal; Jørgen Carling & Karin Fathimath Afeef (2014) Private money, public scrutiny? Contrasting perspectives on remittances, Global Networks 14(4): 514–532.
Horst, Cindy (2013) The depoliticization of diasporas from the Horn of Africa: From refugees to transnational aid workers, African Studies 72(2): 228–245.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal & Cindy Horst (2012) How does Conflict in Migrants’ Country of Origin Affect Remittance-Sending? Financial Priorities and Transnational Obligations Among Somalis and Pakistanis in Norway, International Migration Review 46(2): 283–309.
Fadnes, Ellen; & Horst, Cindy (2009) Responses to Internal Displacement in Colombia: Guided by What Principles?, Refuge 26(1): 111–120.
Horst, Cindy (2008) The Transnational Political Engagements of Refugees: Remittance Sending Practices amongst Somalis in Norway, Conflict, Security and Development 8(3): 31–339.
Horst, Cindy (2008) A Monopoly on Assistance? International Aid to Refugee Camps and the Role of the Diaspora, Afrika Spectrum 43(1): 121–131.
Horst, Cindy (2006)Buufis amongst Somalis in Dadaab: The Transnational and Historical Logics Behind Resettlement Dreams , Journal of Refugee Studies 19(2): 143–157.
Horst, Cindy; & Horst, Cindy (2006)Refugee livelihoods: Continuity and Transformations , Refugee Survey Quarterly 25(2): 6–22.

Book Chapter

Horst, Cindy & Mulki Al-Sharmani (2016) Marginal actors? Diaspora Somalis Negotiate Their Citizenship, in Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa; Päivi Harinen; & Ville-Samuli Haverinen, eds, Dislocations of Civic Cultural Borderlines: Methodological Nationalism, Transnational Reality and Cosmopolitan Dreams. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing (107–122).
Horst, Cindy; Sonia Pereira & Olivia Sheringham (2015) The Impact of Class on Feedback Mechanisms: Brazilian Migration to Norway, Portugal and the United Kingdom, in Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (90–112).
Horst, Cindy; Stephen Lubkemann & Robtel Pailey (2015) The Invisibility of a Third Humanitarian Domain, in Sezgin, Zeynep; & Dennis Dijkzeul, eds, The New Humanitarians In International Practice: Emerging Actors and Contested Principles. London: Routledge (213–231).
Engbersen, Godfried; Erik Snel & Cindy Horst (2015) Beyond networks: Insights on feedback and mechanisms of the middle range, in Beyond Networks: Feedback In International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (231–246).
Ezzati, Rojan Tordhol & Cindy Horst (2014) Norwegian collaboration with diasporas, in Laakso, Liisa; & Petri Hautaniemi, eds, Diasporas, Development and Peacemaking In the Horn of Africa. London/New York: Zed Books .
Friberg, Jon Horgen & Cindy Horst (2014) RDS and the Structure of Migrant Populations, in Tyldum, Guri; & Lisa Johnston, eds, Applying Respondent Driven Sampling to Migrant Populations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan .
Horst, Cindy (2013) International Aid to Refugees in Kenya: The Neglected Role of the Somali Diaspora, in Kane, Abdoulaye; & Todd Leedy, eds, African Migrations: Patterns and Perspectives. Indiana: Indiana University Press (195–210).
Horst, Cindy(2012) Chapter 2: Vulnerability and Protection: reducing risks and promoting security for forced migrants World Disaster Report 2012. : International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies(46–79).
Horst, Cindy(2012) The Livelihoods Approach Food Security Handbook. : Norwegian Refugee Council.
Horst, Cindy(2009) Expanding Sites: The Question of ‘Depth’ Explored Multi-Sited Ethnography. Theory, Praxis and Locality In Contemporary Social Research. : (119–134).
Horst, Cindy(2007) The Role of Remittances in the Transnational Livelihood Strategies of Somalis Global Migration and Development. : .
Horst, Cindy(2007) The Somali Community in Minneapolis: Expectations and Realities From Mogadishu to Dixon: the Somali Diaspora In a Global Context. : .
Horst, Cindy(2007) Connected Lives: Somalis in Minneapolis Dealing with Family Responsibilities and Migration Dreams of Relatives Somalia: Diaspora and State Reconstitution In the Horn of Africa. : (89–101).

Edited Volume

Bakewell, Oliver; Godfried Engbersen; Lucinda Fonseca; & Cindy Horst, eds, (2015) Beyond Networks: Feedback in International Migration. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Horst, Cindy (2015) Somalia’s hope for the future? The return of young Diaspora Somalis, Horn of Africa Bulletin 27(5): 12–17.

Popular Article

Jumbert, Maria Gabrielsen & Cindy Horst (2015) En byrde ingen vil bære [A burden no one wants to bear], Dagsavisen.
Horst, Cindy (2012) Finding protection from violent conflict and famine?, Sarvi. Horn of Africa Journal, .
Horst, Cindy (2012) En trygg havn? [A safe haven?], Dagbladet.
Erdal, Marta Bivand;Horst, Cindy;Carling, Jørgen; & Ezzati, Rojan (2010) Bidrar 'her' og 'der' [Contribute 'here' and 'there'], Aftenposten , 8 November.
Horst, Cindy (2010) Somalia's Hidden Population, Global Expert Finder, 11 August.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Ekskludert fra utvikling? [Excluded from Development?], Dagsavisen, 29 July.
Erdal, Marta Bivand; Mohamed Husein Gaas & Cindy Horst (2008) Tvunget til lovbrudd [Forced to Break the Law], Dagbladet, 2 April.
Horst, Cindy (2007) Somaliere i Norge: Krigere eller velgjørere? [Somalis in Norway: Warriors or Benefactors?], Dagbladet, 18 January.

PRIO Report

Horst, Cindy; Rojan Ezzati; Matteo Guglielmo; Petra Mezzetti; Päivi Pirkkalainen; Valeria Saggiomo; Giulia Sinatti; & Andrea Warnecke (2010) Participation of Diasporas in Peacebuilding and Development. A Handbook for Practitioners and Policymakers, PRIO Report, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Carling, Jørgen; Marta Bivand Erdal; Cindy Horst; & Hilde Wallacher (2007) Legal, Rapid and Reasonably Priced? A Survey of Remittance Services in Norway, PRIO Report, 3. Oslo: PRIO.

Conference Paper

Horst, Cindy 2008 Multi-sited Methods within the Diasporas for Peace Project, presented at DIASPEACE Kick-off Workshop, , 5 May.
Horst, Cindy 2008 Somali Assistance Networks: The Social Dynamics of Sending Remittances, presented at Gwendolen M. Carter Conference Migrations In & Out of Africa: Old Patterns & New Perspectives, , 15 February.
Horst, Cindy 2008 Somalis in Kenya: Business as Usual?, presented at International Association for the Study of Forced Migration, , 8 January.
Horst, Cindy 2007 A Monopoly on Assistance? International Aid to Refugee Camps and the Role of the Diaspora, presented at AEGIS Conference, , 11 July.
Horst, Cindy 2007The Role of Diasporas in Civil War , presented at CSCW workshop on the transnational facets of civil war16 March.

PRIO Policy Brief

Horst, Cindy & Elin Martine Doeland (2016) Introducing a Women’s Empowerment Agenda from Abroad? Gender and Stability in Somalia, PRIO Policy Brief, 13. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy & Nasra Jama (2016) Resources for Health Care in Somaliland: From the International to the Communal?, PRIO Policy Brief, 23. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy (2015) Back in Business? Diaspora Return to Somalia, PRIO Policy Brief, 5. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy & Tove Heggli Sagmo (2015) Humanitarianism and Return: Compromising Protection?, PRIO Policy Brief, 3. Oslo: PRIO.
Gaas, Mohamed Husein & Cindy Horst (2009) Diaspora Organizations from the Horn of Africa in Norway: Contributions to Peacebuilding?, PRIO Policy Brief, 2. Oslo: PRIO.
Horst, Cindy (2008) Diaspora Engagements in Development Cooperation, PRIO Policy Brief, 8. Oslo: PRIO.

PRIO Paper

Horst, Cindy; Jørgen Carling & Rojan Ezzati (2010) Immigration to Norway from Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Morocco and Ukraine, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Erdal, Marta Bivand & Cindy Horst (2010) Engaging Diasporas in Development. A Review of Pilot Project Pakistan, PRIO Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Gaas, Mohamed Husein; & Horst, Cindy (2008) Remittances for Peace? The Transnational Political Engagements of Somalis in Norway: PRIO.

Report - Other

Hammond, Laura; Mustafa Awad; Ali Ibrahim Dagane; Peter Hansen; Cindy Horst; Ken Menkhaus; & Lynette Obare (2011) Cash and Compassion: The Role of the Somali Diaspora in Relief, Development and PeacebuildingReport of a Study Commissioned By UNDP Somalia.
Sinatti, Giulia;Ezzati, Rojan;Guglielmo, Matteo ;Horst, Cindy;Mezzetti, Petra ;Pirkkalainen, Päivi;Saggiomo, Valeria; & Warnecke, Andrea (2010) Diasporas as Partners in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding, report from the DIASPEACE project, : .
Horst, Cindy; & Elmi, Kh. (2007) Participation in Sustainable Livelihoods: An Assessment of Socio-Economic Conditions in Dadaab and the Impact of DRC-Care Interventions.

Report - External Series

Horst, Cindy (2013) Somalis in Oslo, Somalis in European Cities. New York: Open Society Foundations.
Horst, Cindy (2006) Connected Lives. Somalis in Minneapolis: Family Responsibilities and the Migration Dreams of Relatives, 0, : .

Blog Posts

Somalia’s Hope for the Future? The Return of Young Diaspora Somalis

Posted by Cindy Horst on Monday, 30 November 2015

The Somali conflict has affected Somali citizens inside and outside the Somali region for over 25 years. While Somaliland and Puntland have enjoyed relative stability for more than two decades, conditions are much more fragile in south-central Somalia, and residents in many parts of the Somali region face considerable levels of insecurity still. In late 2012, however, the first permanent central government since the start of the civil war was installed in Mogadishu. This increased expectations that south-central Somalia is transitioning towards greater stability and created hope amongst the Somali diaspora. Since 2011-2012, the number of people returning to south-central ...

Back in Business? Diaspora Return to Somalia

Posted by Cindy Horst on Thursday, 18 June 2015

In most post-conflict contexts, returning diaspora members contribute to reconstruction efforts; including through investments in businesses. While many invest in traditional ventures, others introduce new ideas for entrepreneurship. In Somalia, diaspora businesses are visible and valued; especially for their development and peacebuilding potential. The conflict has affected Somali citizens inside and outside the Somali region for over 25 years. With the cautious optimism about developments in south-central Somalia in the last few years, however, we see the number of people returning to the region increasing considerably. Full daily flights into Mogadishu offered by Turkish Airlines attest to this. Returning for ...

Humanitarianism and Return

Posted by Cindy Horst & Tove Heggli Sagmo on Monday, 4 May 2015

Humanitarianism and Return: Compromising Protection In many contexts around the world, states use funding for humanitarian programming as an active part of their attempts to manage populations displaced by conflict. Humanitarian aid to refugees and internally displaced is commonly understood as a temporary activity that ends when people will return home. Yet returnees can often not be provided with protection and ‘return’ for many entails a first encounter with a new place. In a recent policy brief we argue that humanitarian organizations have the responsibility to analyze the long-term security implications of their decisions on where to provide aid. Return ...

Unlikely Partners: The EU-Horn of Africa Migration Route Initiative

Posted by Cindy Horst & Maimuna Mohamud on Wednesday, 22 April 2015

Should the EU cooperate with regional states to manage and control migration from the Horn of Africa? Proponents of greater migration control within the EU increasingly favor the use of political and economic incentives as an approach to prevent migration from the Horn of Africa and elsewhere, effectively through increasingly externalizing border control. While the unfolding humanitarian disaster in the Mediterranean shows the urgency of finding creative solutions, we argue that the solution does not lie in cooperating with states that create refugees or cannot guarantee to uphold the non-refoulement principle that EU countries have signed up for in the ...

A Burden no one Wants to Share: Why do Refugees from the Horn of Africa try to Cross into Europe?

Posted by Cindy Horst & Maimuna Mohamud on Tuesday, 21 April 2015

The humanitarian crisis in the Mediterranean, with staggering high numbers of deaths of asylum seekers and migrants attempting to cross by sea, shows the urgency of an alternative approach to Europe’s current border policies. Across the EU, mounting internal political pressures have intensified debates about migration and asylum, encouraging policies devised to restrict and control asylum and migration. These policies do not prevent people – many of whom originate from the Horn of Africa – from trying to cross the Mediterranean. In 2014, Eritreans composed the second largest migrant group to Europe, after the Syrians, reaching 34,320 according to the ...

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