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Åshild Kolås

Åshild Kolås

Research Professor

Eilif Fjon

Eilif Fjon

Graduate Student, Research Assistant

Ilaria Carrozza

Ilaria Carrozza

Senior Researcher

Jørgen Carling

Jørgen Carling

Research Professor

Ola Tunander

Ola Tunander

Research Professor Emeritus

Qin Yaqing

Qin Yaqing

PRIO Global Fellow

Stein Tønnesson

Stein Tønnesson

Research Professor

Tony Wai On Yam

Tony Wai On Yam

Master's Student


Peer-reviewed Journal Article

Carrozza, Ilaria (2021) Legitimizing China's Growing Engagement in African Security: Change within Continuity of Official Discourse, The China Quarterly. DOI: 10.1017/S0305741021000242.
Carling, Jørgen & Heidi Østbø Haugen (2020) Circumstantial migration: how Gambian journeys to China enrich migration theory, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2020.1739385.
Isaksson, Ann-Sofie & Andreas Kotsadam (2018) Chinese aid and local corruption, Journal of Public Economics 159: 146–159.
Isaksson, Ann-Sofie & Andreas Kotsadam (2018) Racing to the bottom? Chinese development projects and trade union involvement in Africa, World Development 106: 284–298.
Kolås, Åshild (2017) Truth and Indigenous Cosmopolitics in Shangrila, The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 18(1): 1–20.
Carling, Jørgen (2017) Visualizing the transnational connections of China’s most African neighbourhood, Environment and Planning a 49(6): 1209–1213.
Tønnesson, Stein (2015) Deterrence, interdependence and Sino-US Peace, International Area Studies Review 18(3): 297–311.
Baev, Pavel K. & Stein Tønnesson (2015) Can Russia keep its special ties with Vietnam while moving closer and closer to China?, International Area Studies Review 18(3): 312–325.
Kolås, Åshild (2014) Degradation Discourse and Green Governmentality in the Xilinguole Grasslands of Inner Mongolia, Development and Change 45(2): 308–328.
Haugen, Heidi Østbø & Jørgen Carling (2005) On the Edge of the Chinese Diaspora: The Surge of Baihuo Business in an African City, Ethnic and Racial Studies 28(4): 639–662.
Kolås, Åshild (1996) Tibetan Nationalism: The Politics of Religion, Journal of Peace Research 33(1): 51–66.
Thee, Marek (1979) Red East in Conflict: The China/Indochina Wars, Journal of Peace Research 16(2): 93–100.
Thee, Marek (1979) The China - Vietnam - Indochina Conflict. The Search for Solutions, Alternatives 5(3): 351–367.
Løvbræk, Asbjørn (1976) The Chinese Model of Development, Journal of Peace Research 13(3): 207–226.
Thee, Marek (1972) US - Chinese Rapprochement and Vietnam, Journal of Peace Research 9(1): 63–67.


Book Chapter

Baev, Pavel K. (2021) Russia's Security Interests and Military Build-up in the Arctic, in Gaens, Bart; & Kristi Raik, eds, Nordic-Baltic Connectivity with Asia via the Baltic. Tallinn: ICDS (32–56).
Carrozza, Ilaria (2019) China’s Multilateral Diplomacy in Africa: Constructing the Security-Development Nexus, in Johanson, Daniel; Jie Li; & Tsunghan Wu, eds, New Perspectives on China’s Relations with the World. Bristol, England: E-International Relations Publishing (142–158).
Roy, Kaushik (2015) British-India and Afghanistan: 1707-1842, in Kaushik Roy, ed., Chinese and Indian Warfare - from the Classical Age to 1870. Abingdon: Routledge (91–120).
Tønnesson, Stein (2016) UN Compulsory Arbitration: a Tough Test for China, in Sense and sensibility – Addressing the South China Sea disputes. Brussels: EU Institute of Security Studies (25–30).
Kolås, Åshild (2015) Introduction. Writing the “Reindeer Ewenki”, in Reclaiming the Forest. the Ewenki Reindeer Herders of Aoluguya. Oxford: Berghahn (1–17).
Tønnesson, Stein (2014) Could China and Vietnam Resolve the Conflicts in the South China Sea?, in Song, Yann-huei; & Keyuan Zou, eds, Major Law and Policy Issues In the South China Sea: European and American Perspectives. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate (207–233).
Tønnesson, Stein (2014) China's national interests and the law of the sea: are they reconcilable?, in Wu, Shicun; & Hong Nong, eds, Recent Developments In the South China Sea Dispute: the Prospect of a Joint Development Regime. London: Routledge (199–227).
Kolås, Åshild (2015) Ambiguities of the Aoluguya Ewenki, in Reclaiming the Forest. the Ewenki Reindeer Herders of Aoluguya. Oxford: Berghahn (61–76).
Bøckman, Harald (1995) Mao Zedong - mytene, maskene, mannen [Mao Zedong - the Myths, the Masks and the Man], in Li Zhisui, ed., Formann Mao - Livlegens beretning. Oslo: Cappelen (XI-XVI).
Bøckman, Harald (1994) A Historical Sketch of Sinology in Norway, in Weddelsborg, Anne; & Stig Thøgersen, eds, Chinese Studies in the Nordic Countries. Survey no. 3. Europe: European Association of Chinese Studies (57–61).
Bøckman, Harald (1992) The Brewing Ethnic Conflicts in China and Their Historical Background, in Rupesinghe, Kumar; Peter King; & Olga Vorkunova, eds, Ethnicity and Conflict in a Post-Communist World. London: Macmillan (183–198).

Edited Volume

Roy, Kaushik (ed.) (2015) Chinese and Indian Warfare - From the Classical Age to 1870. Abingdon: Routledge.
Kolås, Åshild; & Yuanyuan Xie, eds, (2015) Reclaiming the Forest. The Ewenki Reindeer Herders of Aoluguya. Oxford: Berghahn.
Kolås, Åshild; & Zha Luo, eds, (2013) Pastoralism in Contemporary China: Policy and Practice. Beijing: Social Science Academic Press.

Non-refereed Journal Article

Baev, Pavel K. (2021) Russia and China: A Mutually Exaggerated Strategic Partnership?, China Brief 21(20): 16–20.
Thee, Marek (1979) Det røde Østen i konflikt. Krigen mellom Kina/Indokina, Kontur 3(3): 10–16.

Popular Article

Carrozza, Ilaria & Henrik Buljo Anstorp (2021) Kommer Kina til å gjenoppbygge Afghanistan, Irak og Syria? [Will China rebuild Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria?], Aftenposten, 4 September.
Baev, Pavel K. (2021) Russia finds itself marginalized between China and reuniting West, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 29 March.
Carrozza, Ilaria (2020) Training Armed Forces in Africa: No Such Thing as a New Cold War, Corriere dell'Italianità, 12 November.
Baev, Pavel K. (2020) Scant Foreign Policy Choices for a Troubled and Divided Russia, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 6 July.
Baev, Pavel K. (2020) Russia’s Multiplying Foreign Policy Constraints, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 26 May.
Carrozza, Ilaria (2020) The Global South in Times of Crisis: A China–Africa Relations View, E-International Relations, 14 May.
Baev, Pavel K. (2020) Amidst Subdued Celebrations, Russia Reflects Upon the Meaning of Victory, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 11 May.
Baev, Pavel K. (2020) Russia Accepts and Emulates China’s Coronavirus Propaganda, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 20 April.
Baev, Pavel K. (2020) Russia Struggles With the Chinese Challenge, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 3 February.
Baev, Pavel K. (2019) Russian economic forum - all about China, Eurasia Daily Monitor, 10 June.
Carrozza, Ilaria; Thorsten Benner; Vaclav Kopecky; Matej Šimalčík; Lucrezia Poggetti; Virgilio Bisio; Clark Fonda; Maria Adele Carrai & Tim Summers (2019) How Should Europe Handle Relations with China? A ChinaFile Conversation, ChinaFile, 8 April.
Baev, Pavel K. (2019) China-Russia: A pseudo-alliance in limbo, Policy Forum, 9 January.
Carrozza, Ilaria (2018) Talking the China talk: China’s Africa discourse goes global, Asia Dialogue, 5 October.
Goldblat, Jozef (1989) A U.S. 'guest' and hopes for democracy in China, International Herald Tribune, Letter to the Editor, 20 June.

Conference Paper

Tønnesson, Stein (2001) Sino-Vietnamese relations and the South China Sea, presented at the South China Sea panel of the Third EUROSEAS conference, London, 6 September.

PRIO Policy Brief

Nilsen, Marte; Amara Thiha; Ilaria Carrozza & Øystein H. Rolandsen (2021) China in Myanmar: Complex Engagements, Complicated Relations, PRIO Policy Brief, 6. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - Other

Czaika, Mathias; & Marie Godin (2019) Qualitative Comparative Analysis for migration and development research, MIGNEX Background Paper. Oslo: PRIO.
Carrozza, Ilaria (2018) China’s African Union diplomacy: challenges and prospects for the future, Policy Brief Series. London: LSE Global South Unit.
Tønnesson, Stein; & Åshild Kolås (2006) Energy Security in Asia: China, India, Oil and Peace, Report to the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Oslo: PRIO.

Report - External Series

Baev, Pavel K. (2020) The Limits of Authoritarian Compatibility: Xi's China and Putin's Russia, Global China. Washington DC: Brookings Institution.
Baev, Pavel K. (2019) Shifts in Russian military build-up in the Arctic driven by the Interactions with China, Security Insights, 32. Garmisch-Partenkirchen: George Marshall Center for European Security Studies.
Baev, Pavel K. (2014) Upgradina Russia's quasi-strategic pseudo-partnership with China, PONARS Eurasia , 337. Washington DC: George Washington University, Elliot School of International Affairs.

Book Review

Kolås, Åshild (2018) Review of Miaoyan Yang, ed., Learning to Be Tibetan: The Construction of Ethnic Identity at Minzu University of China, in The China Journal 80: 123–125.
Kolås, Åshild (2008) Review of Charlene Makley, ed., The Violence of Liberation: Gender and Tibetan Buddhist Revival in Post-Mao China, in Asian Studies Review 32(4): 537–539.

Blog Posts

Corona Apps – Going Global

Posted by Mareile Kaufmann, Åshild Kolås & Arijit Sen on Thursday, 30 September 2021

On 8 April 2020, less than a month after the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was a pandemic, Mareile Kaufmann posted a PRIO blog entitled “Corona Apps – Where Are We Headed?” on the use of digital tools in the “war against corona”, asking what the ... Read more »

Hong Kong Two Years After the Mass Protests: What’s Next?

Posted by Amalie Nilsen on Wednesday, 4 August 2021

In 2019, millions of Hong Kong citizens took to the streets to protest a proposed bill that would allow Hong Kong authorities to extradite suspected criminals to mainland China. The protests soon developed into a movement, demanding full universal suffrage, amnesty of arrested protestors, and an independent inquiry to investigate police brutality. Known as the Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill (Anti-ELAB) ... Read more »

Cobalt and the Congo: A Sustainable Green Energy Transition Cannot Be Built on Human Exploitation

Posted by Prince De Makele Mounguembou on Tuesday, 13 April 2021

General Motors, one of the United State’s most important automakers, announced in January 2021 that it would phase out petroleum-powered cars and trucks and sell only zero-emission vehicles by 2035. Although one of the auto industry’s most ambitious moves, electric vehicles (EVs) cannot be produced or driven without cobalt, we ... Read more »

The individual, the national, and the global: New connections in times of China-US confrontation

Posted by Ilaria Carozza on Monday, 26 October 2020

As the ongoing confrontation between the US and China has entered the technological and digital realms, we are pushed to rethink the relationship between individuals, nations and the entire world as more fluid than it has ever been before. While we grapple with these changes, the EU is on the ... Read more »

The Next Wave?

Posted by Sirianne Dahlum on Wednesday, 12 August 2020

The coronavirus pandemic seems to be strengthening China and its leader Xi Jinping, while weakening the United States. If an autocracy gains strength on the international stage, while at the same time fear and uncertainty are spreading among the global population, this may provide fertile ground for a new wave ... Read more »

The Role of State-Supported Disinformation in the Wake of COVID-19

Posted by Heiko Schaub on Tuesday, 9 June 2020

On April 1 the European External Action Service (EEA) released a report alleging China and Russia had carried out a coordinated disinformation campaign around the origin and the spread of COVID-19 to sway public opinion abroad and create divisions among EU members. The report claims that China and Russia are ... Read more »

What China’s Approach to the Wuhan Virus Tells Us about Politics in Dictatorships

Posted by Carl Henrik Knutsen on Friday, 7 February 2020

It is easy to become fascinated by the images from Wuhan. Stunning aerial photographs show dozens of Chinese diggers deployed on a plot of land to build a brand new hospital. The hospital will be completed in just a few days! Perhaps it’s not so bad after all to have ... Read more »

China’s Conflict with the NBA Shows Why Companies Can’t Force Social Change by Themselves

Posted by Jason Miklian, Benedicte Bull & John E. Katsos on Friday, 18 October 2019

A tweet landed a global brand in a clash of politics and cultural demands. It was a tough week for U.S. companies doing business in China. Tiffany canceled an ad campaign because the model had a hand over her right eye, prompting critics in China to complain it looked like she was ... Read more »

The Taliban’s Choice

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Tuesday, 13 March 2018

The Taliban have, for the first time, been presented with a comprehensive peace initiative. This is an invitation they can not turn down. President Ashraf Ghani’s proposal at the conclusion of the recent meeting of the Kabul Process on Peace and Security Cooperation was as bold as it was surprising. ... Read more »

Afghanistan – a new chapter in the Great Game?

Posted by Kristian Berg Harpviken on Wednesday, 7 March 2018

May the shifting superpower dynamics bring hope for Afghanistan? Both Moscow and Beijing are displaying increasing interest in Afghanistan, after a decade and a half of domination by Washington. This shift is having effects in both Afghanistan and among its neighbours. the international power play surrounding Afghanistan is changing Recent ... Read more »

Totalitarianism Closing in on China

Posted by Stein Ringen on Monday, 16 October 2017

The only drama in the “two sessions” jamboree in Beijing this spring is that there was no drama at all. Each year the Chinese political élite, 5000 men and a few women strong, congregate in the capital for a week of meetings of the legislature, the National People’s Congress, and ... Read more »

Can the East Asian Peace Survive?

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Thursday, 11 May 2017

Uncertainty concerning President Donald Trump’s China and North Korea policies have instilled new fears of war in East Asia, a region that has enjoyed a surprising level of peace for almost four decades. Yet, if China treats Trump with care, the region may remain peaceful. The text in this post ... Read more »

Is China helping Trump, or is Trump helping China?

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Tuesday, 25 April 2017

When Chinese president Xi Jinping met US president Donald Trump in Florida on 6–7 April, Xi convinced his host that it is not easy to exert influence on North Korea, but apparently promised to help the United States to the best of his ability. In practice, it may be Trump who helps ... Read more »

Trump and Threats to Truth, Democracy and Peace

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Tuesday, 21 March 2017

Stein Tønnesson delivered this year’s The Fjord Memorial Lecture  at Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Lillehammer. The lecture discusses Trump’s team of advisors, calls for fighting the increasing use of lies in political campaigning, sees Trump’s election as having weakened democracy worldwide, and perceives a major risk to world ... Read more »

Putin's Trip to Beijing Yields few Fruits, if any

Posted by Pavel Baev on Thursday, 30 June 2016

Expectations regarding President Vladimir Putin’s visit to Beijing on Saturday (June 25) had been rather subdued, and the modest results were mostly immaterial. Last year, the two leaders grandiosely celebrated their countries’ World War II victory over the Axis powers; and in 2014, they announced a great increase in economic ... Read more »

The Precarious China-Russia Partnership Erodes Security in East Asia

Posted by Pavel Baev on Friday, 22 April 2016

With the explosion of the Ukraine crisis in spring 2014, Russia made a determined effort to upgrade its strategic partnership with China and achieved instant success. Large-scale economic contracts were signed in a matter of a few months, and the military parades in Moscow and Beijing in respectively May and ... Read more »

World War II Becomes a Chinese War

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Thursday, 3 September 2015

70 years ago, Japan signed an agreement of formal surrender on an American warship in Tokyo Bay. The anniversary of this event will be marked in Beijing today, September 3rd by a massive military parade in which Chinese and Russian soldiers march together. President Xi Jinping’s most important guest during ... Read more »

Putin's Pivot to Asia: Profit-Free, but Problem-Rich

Posted by Pavel Baev on Tuesday, 1 September 2015

The bilateral meeting in Beijing will be demonstratively cordial but loaded with mutual disappointment. Putin cannot fail to see that his hopes for harvesting rich dividends from closer Russian ties with China have failed to materialize and delivered him to a position of one-sided dependency. Xi, meanwhile, has few doubts ... Read more »

14 March 1988: East Asia's Last Interstate Battle

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Friday, 24 July 2015

Since the Sino-Vietnamese war of 1979 – a period of 36 years – there has not been one single war between states in the whole of East Asia, a region comprising one third of mankind, and which was ravaged by some of the word’s worst wars from the 1840s to ... Read more »

The China Factor in Russian Support for the Iran Deal

Posted by Pavel Baev on Wednesday, 22 July 2015

The United States needed Russian support to conclude the Iranian nuclear deal. As U.S. President Barack Obama acknowledged, “we would have not achieved this agreement had it not been for Russia’s willingness to stick with us.” But with U.S.-Russian relations at their lowest point since the end of the Cold ... Read more »

Paving the Road to Democracy or Unleashing Big Brother? The Internet under Dictatorships

Posted by Espen Geelmuyden Rød on Tuesday, 3 March 2015

Today almost half of China’s 1.3 billion inhabitants are online, along with 85 million Russians and 17 million Saudis. The proportion of people with Internet access in these countries will soon be comparable to that of the United States, Germany and Japan. But what are the political consequences of allowing ... Read more »

Can Putin trust China?

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Tuesday, 24 February 2015

The Ukraine crisis has made Russia more dependent on China. Putin is popular in Beijing, and Putin and Chinese leader Xi Jinping are the best of friends. But can China save Russia from its crisis? 70 years ago, from 4-11 February 1945, Josef Stalin received US president Franklin D. Roosevelt, ... Read more »

Who’s Afraid of “Waging Nonviolence”?

Posted by Erica Chenoweth on Tuesday, 17 February 2015

Since at least 2011, the Chinese government has censored numerous websites on the topic of nonviolent resistance, including websites for the Albert Einstein Institution, the International Center on Nonviolent Conflict, an online bibliography of scholarship of nonviolent action, and the website for the NAVCO data project, among others. A month ... Read more »

WWII Celebration Plans by Putin and Xi to Score Points

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Monday, 17 November 2014

Russian and Chinese presidents aim to divide US and allies, including Japan, with WWII celebration. When Chinese President Xi Jinping met Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Beijing for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit, he stated that “Japan must look at history squarely and more towards the future.” Xi’s carefully ... Read more »

Putin goes to China, but fails to turn his illusions into reality

Posted by Pavel Baev on Wednesday, 12 November 2014

In a case of striking symbolism, President Vladimir Putin traveled to Beijing on the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, as if seeking reassurance against the specter of a mass public uprising. The dismantling of that icon of the Cold War signified a breakthrough in finally achieving ... Read more »

Article 9 and the East Asian Peace

Posted by Stein Tønnesson on Wednesday, 8 October 2014

World War 1 was primarily a European War. World War 2 was both European and Asian. World War 3 has not yet occurred. If it does, it will be mainly Asian. Provided the pattern of alliances and strategic partnerships continues to look the way it does today, World War 3 ... Read more »